To secure participation of the five states, the Associate Commissioner for the Childrens Bureau sent a letter to each state adoption program manager to introduce the study and to encourage support of the research effort. The RTI team then contacted each program manager to confirm participation and to develop a list of potential interviewees. In addition to the program managers, interviewees included coordinators who managed PAS programs and PAS providers who directly interacted with adoptive families. In each state, the program manager provided a list of individuals associated with the state-directed PAS program. These PAS coordinators and providers assisted in identifying and recruiting adoptive parents for the focus groups.