Across the case-study states, adoption program managers reported that eligibility for PAS was determined largely by adoption type and receipt of subsidy (i.e., presence of special needs). Adoption program managers in Virginia and Massachusetts reported that any adoptive family residing in the state was eligible for PAS. In Massachusetts, eligibility for services is extended to families in legalized guardianship arrangements. In Virginia, the state also opened up PAS to families prior to adoption finalization. Adoption program managers in the remaining three states primarily served families who adopted from the child welfare system in their state. Two of these states offered some lower cost services to all adoptive families.