Ancillary Services to Support Welfare to Work. Housing Instability

06/22/1998

INTRODUCTION

Housing instability can cause a continued reliance or return to public assistance. Welfare agencies have begun to address several issues related to housing instability that can impede a successful transition from welfare to work: the financial burden of meeting the cost of housing and limited housing options in areas near job opportunities or served by local transit systems. Left unaddressed, welfare clients' successful transition to economic self-sufficiency is jeopardized by these issues. Self-sufficiency, if attained, is often temporary in the face of such obstacles. If agencies are to successfully support clients, they must consider approaches to dealing with a range of housing barriers to employment caused by unstable housing conditions.

This section provides information on and addresses the following questions related to housing instability among welfare recipients:

NEED FOR SERVICES:

  • How is housing instability defined?
  • What percentage of the welfare population faces this barrier to employment?
  • What relationship does housing instability have to welfare dependency and employment?

Definition

Five different housing conditions contribute to the definition of housing instability: (1) high housing costs, (2) poor housing quality, (3) unstable neighborhoods, (4) overcrowding, and (5) homelessness.

  • High housing costs refers to housing that takes up more than thirty percent of a household's gross monthly income. Since poor families must pay higher proportions of their income on rent, high housing costs disproportionately affect this population (Housing Assistance Council 1997).
  • Poor housing quality refers to housing that is lacking complete plumbing or a kitchen, has inadequate heating, has inadequate electricity, or has "upkeep problems" (such as leaks, holes, or peeling paint) (Housing Assistance Council 1997).
  • Unstable neighborhoods are those characterized by conditions such as poverty, crime, and lack of job opportunities. Most subsidized housing is located in neighborhoods with these characteristics (Brandon 1995). Other problems that characterize unstable neighborhoods include noise, traffic, litter, poor or very limited city services, and undesirable neighbors (Newman and Schnare 1993).
  • Overcrowding refers to more than one person living in a room (Housing Assistance Council 1997). Overcrowding is often the result of high housing costs or the lack of housing assistance.
  • Homelessness refers to the lack of a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.

Percentage of Welfare Population Facing This Issue

National and state estimates: 5 to 72 percent

Table 12 in Appendix A provides estimates of the prevalence of housing instability, from high housing costs to homelessness. The range in these estimates, presented in the box above, is due primarily to the following factors:

  • Barrier Definition. Different proportions of the welfare population face each of the five housing conditions. For instance, the Housing Assistance Council (1997) reports that 26 percent of welfare recipients face high housing costs, while 5 percent report poor housing quality.
  • Geographic Location. Housing instability varies with urban, rural, and suburban location. Though rural houses cost less than those in urban and suburban areas, median household income in rural areas is far below that found in suburban areas and therefore decreases the amount of affordable housing for rural dwellers. Similarly, rural and urban renters are more likely to live in housing of poor quality than are their suburban counterparts (Housing Assistance Council 1997).
  • Study Sample. Estimates of housing instability vary depending upon the study sample. For example, estimates of households (those occupying a housing unit) will differ from estimates based on families (those living together and related), which will in turn differ from estimates based on individuals. The homeless sample, too, will vary depending on whether data are collected on a given day or over a longer period of time.

Relationship to Welfare Receipt and Employment Status

Little information is available on the nature of the relationship between housing instability and either welfare receipt or employment status. Not all occurrences of housing instability, as defined above, have a direct relationship to welfare dependency or lack of employment. Living in overcrowded conditions, for example, does not necessarily imply a reliance on welfare or difficulty in obtaining or maintaining a job. However, despite the lack of empirical evidence on the nature of this relationship, researchers and policy analysts have suggested what forms the impact of housing instability is likely to have on both welfare receipt and employment:

  • The limited supply of housing assistance available today has increased the number of families facing high housing costs. High housing costs are likely to pose serious budgeting challenges and cause more frequent moves which, in turn, may disrupt existing transportation and child care arrangements.
  • High housing costs are also likely to affect employment status by virtue of the limited family income that remains, once housing costs are covered, to pay for employment-related expenses such as child care, transportation, and clothes (Sard 1993).
  • In the absence of income disregards, rent payments for those in supported housing rise with increases in income and fall with decreases, which creates a disincentive to obtain employment at a wage rate less than what is needed to offset this loss of housing assistance.
  • Most welfare families are provided housing options only in very distressed neighborhoods characterized by a high concentration of poverty, distant from transportation systems, child care providers, and medical services, and with extremely limited employment opportunities.(1)
  • Poor housing quality can lead to interruptions in--and possible loss of--employment. Interruptions may be caused by health problems that arise from inadequate plumbing, lack of heat or electricity, or high lead levels.
  • Lack of housing makes finding employment difficult, since many job applications require an applicant's address, and lack of a telephone makes communication difficult (Sard 1993).
  • Sixty-seven percent of those homeless reported ever working, while 73 percent of those housed reported ever working (Bassuk et al. 1995).

Welfare Agency Approaches

  • What can welfare agencies do to assist clients who face housing instability as a barrier to employment?
  • What does the evidence suggest about the effectiveness of addressing this barrier?
  • What do we know about program costs?
  • What do we know about program implementation?

The two critical program features of an agency's approach to addressing housing instability are (1) identifying which clients to serve, and (2) determining the appropriate type of program to implement.

Client Identification

Because of the financial risks and the limited supply of housing, welfare agencies are generally exercising care in screening and selecting clients for many of the new initiatives designed to provide housing assistance. Agencies commonly consider some combination of information pertaining to a client's employment status, welfare status, income level, and other characteristics.

Programs often require clients either to be employed or to be enrolled in an approved job training program with the promise of employment. Some programs target clients no longer eligible for TANF, some target those who have recently exited the welfare rolls as a result of employment, while others target those still receiving welfare.

Income level is considered in an effort to provide housing support to those with greater need. There is often an income limit for eligibility, such as 150 percent of the federal poverty level.

Other client characteristics sometimes considered are previous housing circumstances (such as paying high housing costs), a client's TANF performance record (such as the number of sanctions received), or personal circumstances (such as the ages or number of children).

Identification is often based on a caseworker's determination of the extent to which a client meets objective eligibility criteria, with minimal opportunity for subjective input. In some cases, subjective input is considered, and a caseworker's recommendation regarding client participation is weighed along with the objective criteria.

Program Strategies

State and local welfare agencies are beginning to develop initiatives in response to clients' housing needs. Our review of programs focuses on welfare agency efforts and does not extend to potential responses such as changes in housing policy or the large number of efforts on the part of the public housing authorities. On the whole, programs are geared more toward assisting clients with housing costs so that they can remain employed rather than toward addressing more severe housing circumstances, such as homelessness, that hinder a welfare recipient from becoming employed. Our review suggests that there are at least two program strategies used by agencies to address housing instability. We categorize these strategies below. The distinctions drawn are not intended to suggest that agencies design programs around a single strategy or that these strategies are necessarily mutually exclusive. They are provided instead to foster thinking about the range of programmatic objectives possible, to help agencies define their own service needs, and to classify the programs described at the end of this section for agencies interested in pursuing further information.

Enhanced Service Capacity. Programs with this strategy are designed to improve clients' housing circumstances, though there are at least three important distinctions within these efforts: (1) programs that provide financial support for current or pending housing (such as those that freeze rents or provide assistance with a downpayment), (2) programs that offer expanded but designated housing options (such as specified units set aside for welfare clients), and (3) programs that provide expanded and unrestricted options, allowing clients greater opportunity to locate in areas near jobs (such as rental subsidies for housing of choice or home ownership opportunities).

Program Staff. Programs with this strategy add staff training to their efforts at enhanced service capacity. Staff training can be designed to increase caseworkers' awareness and understanding of how housing instability can affect clients, what types of housing-related services may be needed to help clients move from welfare to work, or how they can become active housing advocates on behalf of clients in their interactions and negotiations with landlords.

Program Outcomes

To date, there is minimal evidence on the effectiveness of welfare agency efforts to provide housing assistance in improving recipients' employment status or prospects for employment. There are currently plans for an evaluation of the Work First New Jersey Housing Assistance Program, and the findings should help to fill this gap (further information is provided under Program Models). Findings from an evaluation of the Gatreaux Program, however, are relevant, particularly to enhanced service capacity programs that permit clients to find housing wherever they choose.

The Gatreaux Program was launched in 1976 in Chicago in response to the discriminatory nature of the city's public housing program, which restricted beneficiaries to economically depressed neighborhoods. It provided housing vouchers (Section 8 certificates) to help low-income families move to areas with better employment prospects--chiefly, to the suburbs. Chicago, like many other cities, lost a large number of low-skilled jobs to the suburbs, while low-skilled workers remained in the city with few employment prospects. In this respect, the Gatreaux Program used expanded housing options to address the issue of spatial mismatch--housing located in areas far from jobs. Findings from a 1988 evaluation of the Gatreaux Program showed that those with no previous work experience who moved to the suburbs were over 50 percent more likely to find a job than were those who moved but were limited to housing options within the city (46 percent to 30 percent) (Rosenbaum 1991).

Though the focus in the evaluation of the Gatreaux Program is on differences between relocating to the suburbs versus relocating within the city, the findings suggest that provision of housing support that permits choice of location--presumably in an area with greater job availability--can have a significant effect on employment outcomes. This is the design behind current welfare agency efforts that provide rental subsidies that can be used in a location of the client's choice.

Program Costs

Information on the costs to welfare agencies of efforts to address housing needs indicates a substantial range, from very minimal to millions of dollars. Costs will vary depending upon the program's design--specifically, how much direct financial support is provided to each client--and upon the extent to which the program is able to draw on funds from other sources. Funding beyond TANF block grant dollars for the programs reviewed here comes from a variety of sources, including city "housing levy" dollars, low-income housing tax credits, and state government.

The Lease Purchase Program in Ohio, which offers expanded but designated housing options through salvaged single-family homes, is paid for largely through the low-income housing tax credit. The Housing Program in Seattle, Washington, offers expanded but designated housing options by requiring developers to set aside units for welfare participants as a condition for receiving city "housing levy" dollars. The least restrictive and most financially generous programs are those that provide expanded and unrestricted housing options through provision of rental subsidies. The amount paid by the client is often on a sliding scale, with some increasing percentage of income paid toward rent each year. The subsidy to cover the remainder can be as much as five or six thousand dollars per year per family.

Program Implementation

Our synthesis of agency efforts to address client housing needs leads to a discussion of implementation issues welfare agencies face in two key areas: (1) program staff, and (2) service coordination and cooperation.

Program Staff

If programs rely on new roles or responsibilities for caseworkers, agencies must devote resources toward staff training if implementation is to be successful. A sizable portion of welfare clients face the range of housing barriers noted earlier. For the most part, caseworkers have not been trained to deal with these issues or to advocate on behalf of clients. Efforts that rely on caseworkers to interact with landlords or others in the housing sector or to identify clients appropriate for housing assistance programs such as those described in this chapter should include resources devoted to staff training in these areas. Welfare agency staff are generally unaware of the earned income disregards that are available in housing programs and, as a result, fail to include this information when advising clients about the financial consequences of becoming employed. In addition, staff rarely recognize the value of tenant-based vouchers and certificates in helping families to locate housing in areas close to jobs (Sard and Daskal 1998). If caseworkers are not knowledgeable or comfortable in handling these issues, they are unlikely to address clients' needs appropriately.

Service Coordination and Cooperation

If program implementation is to be successful, welfare agencies should cultivate strong partnerships with other agencies and organizations and develop coordinated strategies for delivering services. Many of the recent welfare agency efforts to address housing needs go far beyond any prior efforts. Because of their increased ambition, they are largely reliant on coordination and cooperation with external agencies. Efforts often need--and can benefit from--the cooperation of public housing authorities, landlords, and financial institutions. They frequently require coordination of one or more sources of funding or coordination with a contracted program operator. In general, everybody--from clients to welfare agencies, landlords, and financial institutions--wins if clients obtain or maintain gainful employment. This shared objective helps to align those with whom welfare agencies must coordinate and cooperate.

Coordination may entail clearly specified roles and responsibilities, clear agreements concerning the terms of client participation, and clear arrangements for program funding. The success of a coordinated effort will depend upon recognition of its importance, willingness to devote resources toward it, and patience with the process of securing full cooperation from all those involved.

  • What are welfare agencies doing to address this issue?
  • Whom can I contact?

Program Models(2)

The following programs are presented alphabetically by state. The reader can determine the relevance of a program by noting its primary program strategy and geographic location and then refer to the brief descriptions and contact information on the subsequent pages. We have used primary objective(s) to assign program strategies, though a program may have many objectives.


Connecticut Department of Social Services

Time Limited Rental Assistance Program

Hartford, Connecticut

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded and unrestricted options

Location: Statewide


New Jersey Department of Community Affairs

Work First New Jersey Housing Assistance Program

Trenton, New Jersey

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded and unrestricted options

Enhanced case management

Location: Five selected cities statewide


Cleveland Housing Network

Lease Purchase Program

Cleveland, Ohio

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded but designated options

Location: Seventeen neighborhoods in one city


Tennessee Department of Human Services

Families First Housing Program

Nashville, Tennessee

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: financial support for current housing

Location: Statewide


Seattle Department of Housing and Human Services

Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) Housing Program

Seattle, Washington

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded but designated options

Enhanced case management

Location: Seattle, Washington


Program Name/Contact

Connecticut's Time Limited Rental Assistance Program

Hartford, Connecticut

Kevin Loveland

Connecticut Department of Social Services 860-424-5031

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded and unrestricted options

Location: Statewide

Brief Program Description

The State of Connecticut Department of Social Services (DSS) has designed the Time Limited Rental Assistance Program (TLRAP) to assist participants in the state's Temporary Family Assistance (TFA) program with the transition from assistance to independence. The program is administered by selected community action agencies whose services are contracted by DSS. The projected number of families to be assisted by the program is 2,300 (or an estimated 115 new families each month in a 20-month period). The program's goal is to provide a monthly rental assistance payment to landlords to make safe, affordable housing available for needy families.

 

Eligible families must be former participants in the TFA program, and an adult member of the household must be employed at the time of application and have earnings within standards set by the program. The TRLAP offers, for a maximum of one year, a housing subsidy to participants living in privately owned rental property. The subsidy is about $500 per month and represents 40 percent of the tenant's adjusted gross income minus a utility allowance (or 20 percent of the gross monthly income, whichever is greater) and state-set maximum rent. The rent may exceed the maximum state-set rent only if the family remains in the current rental unit. The family is then responsible for payment of the difference between the state-set maximum and the actual rent in addition to the income-based contribution. If a family moves to a new rental unit, the rent must not exceed the state-set maximum. All subsidized units must meet certain housing standards.

The Connecticut Time Limited Rental Assistance Program has been funded at $10 million for two years. Funding for the program is from state TANF maintenance of effort funds.

Evaluation

This program has not been formally evaluated. DSS is conducting an ongoing internal evaluation that includes housing inspections (conducted randomly) and case file reviews. Findings from the evaluation are not yet available.

Program Name/Contact

New Jersey Department of Community Affairs

Work First New Jersey Housing Assistance Program

Trenton, New Jersey

Roy Ziegler

New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, Division of Housing and Community Resources

609-633-6150

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded and unrestricted options

Enhanced case management

Location: Five selected cities statewide

Brief Program Description

The State of New Jersey Department of Community Affairs designed the Work First New Jersey Housing Assistance Program to address the housing needs of the area's welfare-to-work population. The program provides temporary rental subsidies to supplement the wages of certain entry-level workers. Rental subsidies are provided to about 350 eligible families for up to three years.

Eligible families or individuals include people no longer receiving TANF because of placement in unsubsidized employment. The program includes three components. First, it provides a rental subsidy whereby participating families pay a percentage of their monthly income toward their rent: 45 percent of the rent during year 1, 55 percent during year 2, and 65 percent during year 3. The program pays the rest of the rent directly to the property owner, up to the established payment standard for the rental costs in each county. Second, the program establishes an escrow/savings account to support assisted tenants whose income does not increase. The account is funded by rental payments that the program would normally make to landlords. Third, the program provides home ownership opportunities: the New Jersey Housing and Mortgage Finance Agency extends home ownership opportunities to families who wish to purchase their own homes.

The program is funded for up to $2 million in N.J. Department of Human Services funds each year for three years. The cities in which the program will be implemented and the amount of funding for assisted families in each city are as follows: (1) Asbury Park ($95,000), (2) Camden ($860,400), (3) Elizabeth ($324,000), (4) New Brunswick ($113,400), and (5) Trenton ($406,800).

Evaluation

A comprehensive evaluation of the program, consisting of both an impact and a cost-benefit analysis, will be conducted by the Departments of Community Affairs and Human Services. It will measure the impact of the program on employment success rates and will analyze types and levels of supportive services that were provided to participants. The cost-benefit analysis will compare the costs of housing subsidies and supportive services to the outcomes of participants by examining salaries and reduced state aid.

Program Name/Contact

Lease Purchase Program

Cleveland Housing Network (CHN)

Cleveland, Ohio

Kate Monter Durban

Cleveland Housing Network (CHN)

216-574-7100

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded but designated options

Location: 17 neighborhoods in one city

Brief Program Description

The Cleveland Housing Network (CHN) designed the Lease Purchase Program to address housing instability among the low-income and welfare populations in Cleveland, Ohio. The goal of these programs is to provide affordable and quality housing to Cleveland's low-income and welfare populations. CHN currently manages 1,500 units of scattered site housing through the program. About half of the units are rental housing, and the other half offer the lease-purchase opportunity of eventual home ownership after 15 years of responsible tenancy.

The Lease Purchase Program offers very low-income and welfare families the opportunity to eventually own their own home while salvaging single family houses that are badly in need of fundamental repair. After a comprehensive screening process [ADD DETAILS], a Lease Purchase family is selected for each property as it is nearing completion. The program is specifically designed to keep monthly payments as low as possible through reduced first mortgage rates and soft second funds contributed by the city of Cleveland and the state of Ohio.

The program is financed through the consolidation of Low Income Housing Tax Credits. Through the lease purchase program, families on public assistance are able to secure rents as low as $250 a month. In general, lease purchasers pay rent of between $225 and $390 a month, depending on the size and product type of the house. At some point between the first and seventh year of the lease, the tenant will be able to enter into an agreement to purchase the home at the end of the 15-year tax credit compliance period.

Program Name/Contact

Families First Program

Tennessee Department of Human Services

Nashville, Tennessee

Bettie Teasley

Tennessee Department of Human Services

615-313-5652

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: financial support for current housing

Location: Statewide

Brief Program Description

The Families First Program of the Tennessee Department of Human Services includes training participation requirements that enable participants to qualify for existing U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) income exclusions.(3) Qualification of participants for this income exclusion resulted from formal collaboration and interpretation from HUD regarding the state's TANF policies.(4) For Families First participants who reside in public housing, incremental increases in income received as a result of participation in approved training programs are excluded from rent computations. In addition, upon completion of training, employment-related income is excluded for an additional 18-month period. The rent is instead based on the amount of income received prior to the start of job training. For Families First participants who reside in Section 8 housing, all compensation received as a result of participation in approved training programs is excluded from rent computations, though the exclusion covers only income received during the training program and does not extend beyond its completion.

Welfare agency staff have been trained on promotion of this option for their clients, and actively promote its use. Formal collaboration between the welfare agency and the local housing authority includes the housing authority's review of Families First participants' Personal Responsibility Plans, to determine eligibility for the income exclusion. Participants must notify the housing authority staff of any changes that would impact rent computation. Because this program entails determination of clients' eligibility for an existing HUD income disregard, there are no additional costs to local welfare agencies.

Evaluation

This program has not been formally evaluated. The University of Memphis will conduct an evaluation of the outcomes of the Families First Program and may include an assessment of this program.

Program Name/Contact

Seattle Jobs Initiative--Housing Program

Department of Housing and Human Services

Seattle, Washington

Sunny Coulson

Seattle Jobs Initiative

206-628-6975

Program strategy: Enhanced service capacity: expanded but designated options

Enhanced case management

Location: One urban site

Brief Program Description

The Seattle Department of Housing and Human Services designed the Housing Program as part of the Seattle Jobs Initiative (SJI) to address the housing needs of the program's clients. The goal of the program is to provide stable housing for the 1,400 families enrolled in SJI. The Housing Program has two primary components: (1) set aside units, (2) financial assistance. The emphasis of both is to utilize existing housing resources and to take advantage of service efficiencies to better serve the rapidly emerging housing needs of SJI participants.

Set Aside Units: Housing units, serving the transitional needs of SJI participants, will be "set aside" or reserved for SJI participants by housing developers as a condition of their receipt of City of Seattle Housing Levy dollars. Units created as a result of this funding condition will be held in reserve for SJI participants alone, for as long as the unit's term of affordability and SJI continues operation. SJI is working in partnership with the Low-Income Housing Institute to provide stable transitional housing for homeless SJI participants during training and job search. Residents establish individual transition plans when they move into a designated house and staff work with them to meet goals that will enable them to find permanent housing. SJI has been able to obtain housing for 13 participants and is currently working to secure housing for five homeless SJI participants with children. SJI participants live in self-managed housing and receive social support from case managers and colleagues. Over the course of 1998, SJI will reduce the cost of transitional housing through its arrangement with the Low-Income Housing Institute by almost $50,000.

Financial Assistance: SJI provides subsidies that assist participants with back rent, housing deposits, credit checks, eviction prevention, and moving costs, as well as referrals to stable housing. During Phase 2 of the program, financial assistance will be provided in two ways: (1) rent assistance, and (2) Ready-To-Earn (RTE) Fund assistance. The City's rent assistance program provides assistance with deposits and/or first months rent to families at risk of homelessness. This program is operated within the Department of Housing and Human Services and is funded with federal HOME dollars. It is anticipated that the rental assistance program will serve six additional SJI families this year and over ten families through 1999. During Phase 1, housing assistance--whether for rent, deposits, or eviction prevention--comprised up to 30% of all fund requests made to the RTE Fund.

Evaluation

This program has not been formally evaluated. Abt Associates is conducting the evaluation of the Seattle JOBS Initiative. The SJI Housing Program is incorporated in this larger evaluation but will not undergo a separate evaluation.

Further Information

Further information on issues related to housing is available from the following

Organizations

Better Homes Fund

Newton Centre, MA

617-964-3834

The Better Homes Fund is a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing and implementing long-term solutions to family homelessness. Its mission is to translate research findings and field experience into state-of-the art programs, education, and policies benefiting homeless families.

Housing Assistance Council (HAC)

Washington, DC

202-842-8600

Website: www.ruralhome.org

The Housing Assistance Council (HAC) is a nonprofit corporation that supports the development of rural low-income housing nationwide. HAC provides technical housing services, seed money loans from a revolving fund, housing program and policy assistance, research and demonstration projects, and training and information services.

National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty

Washington, DC

202-638-2535

The National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty is a national organization committed to working with local grassroots and advocacy groups and local governments across the country to address homelessness in their communities and neighborhoods.

Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R)/HUD USER, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)

Rockville, Maryland

800-245-2691

Website: www.hud.gov

The Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) is responsible for maintaining current information on housing needs, market conditions, and existing programs, as well as for conducting research on priority housing and community development issues. PD&R established HUD USER, an information source for housing and community development researchers and policymakers, to serve as a source of information on housing policy and programs and other housing-related topics.

Rural Housing Service (RHS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Washington, DC

202-720-7327

The Rural Housing Service (RHS) provides public agencies, state and local government departments, and public and private nonprofit organizations with loan or grant monies for rural housing development.

Further information on issues related to housing is available in the following

Documents

Newman, Sandra, and Joseph Harkness. "The Effects of Welfare Reform on Housing: A National Analysis." Washington DC: Fannie Mae Foundation, 1997.

This document discusses the impact that welfare reform may have on housing programs and options. Using AFDC Quality Control data, the authors simulate welfare reform's effects on the education, employment status, welfare status, and income of assisted and unassisted renters and owners. The authors review welfare programs in four states in conducting these simulations and provide suggestions as to how programs can better be designed to assist those in need.

Sard, Barbara. "Housing and Welfare Reform Fact Sheet." Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 1993.

This document provides both policy recommendations and policy implications of housing instability. It also discusses the impact housing instability has on employment, training, and education programs.

Sard, Barbara, and Jennifer Daskal. "Housing and Welfare Reform: Some Background Information." Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 1998.

This document provides information on the history of welfare and housing assistance systems. It includes a discussion of the possible intersections or collaborations between welfare and housing agencies as well another concerning how housing policy affects welfare reform.

1. The section titled "Inadequate Transportation" provides further discussion on the issue of spatial mismatch--housing located far from available jobs--and describes transportation efforts to bridge this geographic gap.

2. For an explanation of how programs were selected, please refer to the discussion included in the Introduction under the paragraph heading "Program Models."

3. The HUD regulations governing income exclusions were amended in April, 1995, and are included in 24 CFR, Section 913.106(c)(13) for public housing residents and Section 913.106(c)(8)(v) for Section 8 housing resident.

4. Tennessee operates their TANF program under a waiver from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that permits more education and training components than may be allowed in other states under federal law.