Ancillary Services to Support Welfare to Work. Appendix A: Estimation of Need

06/22/1998

Table 1

National and State Estimates:

Need for Child Care

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage

DURING NONSTANDARD HOURS

Kisker and Ross 1997

National Child Care Survey

Working poor parents

Approximate percentage of those who work:

Evenings

Weekends

Rotating or changing schedule

10

33

50

Long and Clark 1995

CCR&R staff and databases

CCR&R staff in Chicago, Illinois

Requests to referral agencies for evening or weekend care 30
Economic Services Administration 1998

Baseline client survey

Welfare recipients in Washington

Welfare clients who worked nonstandard hours 44
Smith 1995

Illinois Department of Public Aid Survey

Welfare recipients in Illinois

Survey respondents who worked nontraditional hours 72

FOR SICK CHILD

Siegel and Loman 1991

Mail survey, focus groups, and in-person interviews

Welfare recipients in Illinois

Problem finding care when child was sick:

Major problem

Problem

For children 0 to 5

For children 6 to 13

29

62

61

65

FOR SPECIAL-NEEDS CHILD

Pavetti and Duke 1995

Case record reviews

Welfare recipients in Utah, Colorado, and Iowa

Cases noting a child's behavioral or medical problem as a barrier to employment:

Utah

Colorado

Iowa

13

15

18

Pavetti and Duke 1995

Survey of FaDSS program staff

Welfare families in Iowa

Families who have children with special needs 25
Siegel and Loman 1991

Mail surveys, focus groups, and in-person interviews

Welfare recipients in Illinois

Problem finding care when child has lengthy health problems

Major problem

Problem

17

36

Table 2

National and State Estimates:

Supply of Child Care

 
Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
 

DURING NONSTANDARD HOURS

GAO 1997

CCR&R staff and databases

Baltimore, MD; Benton County, OR; Chicago, IL; and Linn County, OR

Known child care providers that offer care during nontraditional hours in poor areas:

Baltimore, Maryland

Benton County, Oregon

Chicago, Illinois

Linn County, Oregon

12

19

20

41

Lawson 1993a

Data source unknown

National estimate.

There are an estimated 12 centers in the country that offer 24-hour care  

FOR SICK CHILD

Willer et al. 1991

National Child Care Survey

Child Care Settings

Care providers, by type, that allow for sick-child care:

Center care (spots or rash)

Center care (feverish)

Center care (severe cough)

 

Regulated family day care (spots or rash)

Regulated family day care (feverish)

Regulated family day care (severe cough)

 

Nonregulated family day care (spots or rash)

Nonregulated family day care (feverish)

Nonregulated family day care (severe cough)

3

6

15

 

10

20

25

 

36

50

50

FOR SPECIAL NEEDS CHILD

GAO 1997

CCR&R staff and databases

Baltimore, Maryland

Known child care providers that offer care for special-needs children in poor areas in Baltimore, MD 13
 
Willer et al. 1991

National Child Care Survey

Child Care Settings

Care providers, by type, that allow for special-needs children:

Nonregulated family day care

Regulated family day care

Early education and care centers

23
 

39

74

aCited in U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau 1995.

Table 3

National Estimates:

Work-Related Disabilities

Source and Population

Barrier Definition

Percentage

Olson and Pavetti 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1991

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients not seeking work because of own medical problems 10
Loprest and Acs 1996

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 1991

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients unable to work due to a serious disability
 

Welfare recipients with a work limitation

10
 

18

Loprest and Acs 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1991

Female welfare recipients

(ages 27 to 34)

Welfare recipients with a work limitation 19
Adler 1993

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 1990

Female welfare recipients

(ages 15 to 45)

Welfare recipients with any functional disability 19
Loprest and Acs 1996

Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) 1990

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients with a work limitation
 

Welfare recipients with any functional limitation

17
 

20

Table 4

State and Local Estimates:

Work-Related Disabilities

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Meyers et al. 1996

AFDC Household Sample 1992

Female welfare recipients in California

Welfare recipients unable to work due to a serious disability
 

Welfare recipients with a work limitation

11
 

31

Table 5

National Estimates:

Learning Disabilities, Including Low Basic Skills

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Nightingale et al. 1991

Adult Basic Education participation data

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients with learning disabilities

(estimated by applying the incidence of learning disabilities among Adult Basic Education participants to the proportion of welfare recipients who are known to have similarly low reading levels)

25 to 40

Quint et al. 1991

New Chance Demonstration Reading tests of participants

Female welfare recipients from 15 sites

Welfare recipients reading at or below sixth-grade level 30
Zill et al. 1991

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1980 and 1991

Armed Forces Qualification Test

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients with low basic skills

(Low basic skills are defined by test scores below the minimum skill level of women in a low-skill occupation [manual laborers])

31
Olson and Pavetti 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1980 and 1991

Armed Forces Qualification Test

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients with low basic skills

(Low basic skills are defined by scores in the bottom decile of the Armed Forces Qualification Test )

33

Table 6

State and Local Estimates:

Learning Disabilities, Including Low Basic Skills

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Giovengo and Moore 1997

Learning Disabilities Initiative

Female welfare recipients in Washington

Welfare recipients with learning disabilities
 

Welfare recipients with learning disabilities and special learning needs (measured by low scores on an IQ test)

36
 

54

Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitation Services 1997, 1998

Learning Disability Initiative

Female welfare recipients in Kansas

Welfare recipients with learning disabilities
 

Welfare recipients with learning disabilities and special learning needs (measured by low scores on an IQ test)

36
 

up to 66

Table 7

National Estimates:

Domestic Violence

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Commonwealth Fund 1993

Survey of Women's Health

National Sample of Women

Welfare recipients who were physically victimized or threatened by their current partner sometime during the past five years 24

aCited in U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau 1995.

 

Table 8

State and Local Estimates:

Current Victims of Domestic Violence

Source and Population

Barrier Definition Percentage
Curcio 1997

Passaic County Survey

Female welfare recipients in New Jersey

Welfare recipients who are current victims of physical abuse 15
Iowa Department of Human Rights 1996

Survey data

Program staff assessment of female welfare recipients in Iowa

Welfare recipients who are current victims of domestic violence 18
Lloyd 1997b

Survey data

Low-income women (including welfare recipients) in Chicago

Low-income women (including welfare recipients) who were victims of severe aggression from their partner during the past year 20
Allard et al. 1997

McCormick Institute survey data

Female welfare recipients in Massachusetts

Welfare recipients who were victims of physical domestic violence (including threatening behavior) during the past year 20
Lloyd 1997a

Utah Single Parent Demonstration

Case reviews

Female welfare recipients in Utah

Welfare recipients who are current victims of domestic violence 27
Bassuk et al. 1996

Better Homes Fund Survey

Low-income women in Massachusetts (mostly welfare recipients)

Low-income women (mostly welfare recipients) who experienced severe physical violence from their partner within the past two years 32

 

Table 9

State and Local Estimates:

Ever Victims of Domestic Violence During Adult Life

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Horizon Research Services 1996

Survey data

Female welfare recipients in Missouri

Welfare recipients who are current or past victims of physical domestic abuse 29
Lloyd 1997b

Survey data

Low-income women (including welfare recipients) in Chicago

Welfare recipients who were ever victims of severe aggression from their male partners during their adult life 34
Pearson and Griswold 1998

Colorado Model Office Project Survey

Female welfare recipients for whom child support is an issue

Welfare recipients who are current or past victims of physical, emotional, or sexual domestic abuse 40
Iowa Department of Human Rights 1996

Survey data

Program staff assessment of female welfare recipients in Iowa

Welfare recipients who are current or past victims of domestic violence 47
Iverson (no date)

Case reviews

Female welfare recipients in Oregon not making adequate progress toward work

Welfare recipients who have ever been physically or sexually abused 50
Weeks (no date)

Survey data

Female welfare recipients in the state of Washington

Welfare recipients who are or were victims of physical abuse or aggression by male partner 55
Curcio 1997

Passaic County Survey

Female welfare recipients in New Jersey

Welfare recipients who have ever been victims of physical domestic violence in their adult life 57
Bassuk et al. 1996

Better Homes Fund Survey

Low-income women in Massachusetts (mostly welfare recipients)

Welfare recipients who ever experienced severe physical violence from their partner in their adult life 61
Allard et al. 1997

McCormick Institute Survey data

Female welfare recipients in Massachusetts

Welfare recipients who ever experienced physical domestic violence (including threatened behavior) in their adult life 65

Table 10

State and Local Estimates:

Recipients of Diversionary Assistance

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Program descriptions

State caseload data

Welfare applicants

Potential welfare recipients diverted from public assistance in:

Maryland

Wisconsin

Virginia

Montana

Utah

<5

<5

<5

12

20

Table 11

State/Local Estimates:

Recipients of Work-Related Payments

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Rangarajan 1998

Postemployment Services Demonstration

Welfare recipients in four sites (Riverside, California; Chicago, Illinois; Portland, Oregon; San Antonio, Texas)

Current welfare recipients who were assisted with work-related payments 47

Table 12

National and State Estimates:

Housing Instability

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995a

American Housing Survey

Welfare recipients in households

Households with poor quality housing 5
Pavetti 1995b

Review of JOBS case records

Welfare recipients in the State of Utah

Welfare recipients who reported homelessness as a barrier to employment 9
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995a

American Housing Survey

Welfare recipients in households

Households who reported that housing had moderate physical inadequacies

Suburban

Urban

Rural

9

10

12

U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1989c

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Certificate/voucher holders who reported a problem with noise 12
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995a

American Housing Survey

Welfare recipients in households

Households with overcrowding problems

Rural

Urban

Suburban

12

18

19

U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1989c

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Certificate/Voucher holders who reported a problem with crime 17
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1989c

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Public housing residents who reported a problem with undesirable neighbors 23
Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995a

American Housing Survey

Welfare recipients in households

Households with severe cost problems only 26
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1989c

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Public housing residents who reported a problem with crime

 

37
Quint et al. 1991b

New Chance Demonstration Staff Survey

Program participants

Program participants who faced a housing problem that interfered with their ability to participate in a training program 48
U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995a

American Housing Survey

Welfare recipients in households

Households with major housing problems

(either cost, quality, and/or crowding problems):

Rural

Suburban

Urban

64

68

72

aCited in Housing Assistance Council 1996.

bCited in Olson and Pavetti 1996.

cCited in Newman and Schnare 1993.

 

Table 13

State Estimates of Health Insurance Receipt

(Medicaid)

Three Months After Exiting Welfare

Data Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Ellwood and Adams 1990

State of California Medicaid Enrollee and Claim Data, 1980-86

Former welfare recipients in California

Former welfare recipients (all eligible for Medicaid) who were insured by Medicaid three months after exiting welfare 17
Ellwood and Adams 1990

State of Georgia Medicaid Enrollee and Claim Data, 1980-86

Female welfare recipients in Georgia

Former welfare recipients (all eligible for Medicaid) who were insured by Medicaid three months after exiting welfare 29

 

Table 14

National Estimates of Health Insurance Receipt

(Either Medicaid or Private)

One Year After Exiting Welfare

Data Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Moffitt and Slade 1997

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1989-1992

Female welfare recipients

Former welfare recipients receiving insurance (either Medicaid or Private) one year after leaving AFDC
 

Former welfare recipients receiving private insurance one year after leaving AFDC

 

Former welfare recipients receiving Medicaid one year after leaving AFDC

77

 

25

 

52

 

Table 15

National Estimates of Health Insurance Receipt

(Either Medicaid or Private)

Three Years After Exiting Welfare

Data Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage
Moffitt and Slade 1997

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1989-1992

Female welfare recipients

Former welfare recipients receiving insurance (either Medicaid or Private) three years after leaving AFDC
 

Former welfare recipients receiving private insurance three years after leaving AFDC

 

Former welfare recipients receiving Medicaid three years after leaving AFDC

55

 

38

 

17

 

 

Table 16

National Estimates:

Mental Health Issues

Data Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Barker et al. 1992

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)- Mental Health 1989

Low-income adults

Low-income adults who have a serious mental illness 4
Leon and Weissman 1993

National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program, Survey Data 1979-82

Female welfare recipients in five sites

Welfare recipients meeting diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder
 

Welfare recipients meeting diagnostic criteria for any affective disorder

6

 

13

Olson and Pavetti 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1991

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients suffering from feelings of depression between three and five days per week
 

Welfare recipients suffering from feelings of depression between five and seven days per week

11

 

13

Jayakody and Pollack 1997

National Household Survey of Drug Abuse 1994 and 1995

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric problem sometime during the past year (including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attack, or agoraphobia) 23
Quint et al. 1994

New Chance Demonstration Program, Survey Data

Female welfare recipients in 15 sites

Welfare recipients at high risk of clinical depression based on responses to a four-item scale adapted from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale 28

 

Table 17

State and Local Estimates:

Mental Health Issues

Data Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Weeks et al. 1990

Survey data

Female welfare recipients in Washington

Welfare recipients with symptoms of serious depression based on a 10-item scale 13
Moore et al. 1996

Survey data of JOBS participants

Female welfare recipients with children in Fulton County, Georgia

Welfare recipients with symptoms of moderate or severe depression based on a four-item scale adapted from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale 27
Iowa Department of Human Rights 1995

Survey of program staff about welfare recipients in Iowa

Welfare recipients with mental health issues 39

 

Table 18

National Estimates:

Substance Abuse

Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Olson and Pavetti 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1991

Welfare recipients

 

Concerned about being an alcoholic or had recent problems 5
Has used or currently uses cocaine or crack extensively 9
Has used or currently uses marijuana extensively 16
Some physical indications of problem drinking 20
DHHS 1994b

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 1991

Female welfare recipients

Women on welfare who were significantly impaired by their use of AOD 5
Women in welfare households who reported heavy alcohol use 8
Women on welfare who were somewhat impaired by their use of AOD 11
Women in welfare households who reported illicit drug use 11
Merrill 1996a

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1992

Female welfare recipients

Women on welfare between 27 and 35 who abused alcohol or drugs 26
Merrill 1994a

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse 1991

Female welfare recipients

Percentage of women on welfare who used drugs or were heavy drinkers 27

a Cited in Young 1996.

 

Table 19

State and Local Estimates:

Substance Abuse

Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Sisco and Pearson 1994a

Project Independence

Montgomery County, Maryland

Female welfare recipients

 

Drug abusers 9
Alcoholics 11
Possible alcoholics 15
Alcoholics and/or drug users 16
Drug users 17
Possible alcoholics and/or drug users 21
Olson and Pavetti 1996

New Chance Demonstration

Teen mothers on welfare

Alcoholics 12
Drugs interfered with program participation 15
Iowa Department of Human Rights 1995

Caseworker responses

Families on welfare

Alcoholics and/or drug users (current) 24
Alcoholics and/or drug users (past) 32
Legal Action Center 1997

State survey data

State estimates of welfare caseload

Oklahoma: percentage of caseload with AOD problem 5 to 30
North Carolina: percentage of caseload at risk for AOD and needs treatment 35
Kansas: percentage of caseload that would fail a drug test 20 to 50
Oregon: percentage of caseload with AOD problem 50 to 60

aCited in Olson and Pavetti 1996.

 

Table 20

National, State and Local Estimates:

Transportation Barriers

Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 

GENERAL

Welfare Research Group 1997

Welfare Research Group Study

Welfare recipients in the state of Connecticut

Welfare recipients in Connecticut who perceive transportation as a barrier to employment 40

USE AND ADEQUACY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

U.S. Bureau of the Census and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Welfare recipients

Welfare recipients who consider public transportation to be inadequate, by area:

Urban

Suburban

Rural

7

11

12

Community Transportation Association of America 1994

Survey of rural FTA grant recipients

National sample of FTA grant recipients

Rural counties in the U.S. with no public transportation 40
Leete and Bania 1995

Census Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 1990

National sample of welfare recipients

Welfare recipients who rely on public transportation 42
Leete and Bania 1995

Census Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 1990

Housing units in Cleveland-Akron area, Ohio

Welfare recipients who rely on public transportation 52
Lacombe 1998

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Boston, Massachusetts

Welfare recipients who live within one mile of a bus route or transit station 58

 

Table 20 (continued)

Transportation Barriers

Source and Population Barrier Definition Percentage

AVAILABILITY OF PERSONAL TRANSPORTATION

U.S. Department of the Census and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1995b

American Housing Survey

National sample of households

Welfare households that do not own a car:

Rural households

Suburban households

Urban households

28

33

57

Public Social Services Agency 1997

GAIN Program Survey 1996

Welfare recipients in Ventura County, CA

Welfare recipients who do not own a working car 50
Edin and Lein 1997a

Study of welfare mothers

Welfare mothers in selected cities

Welfare mothers in Boston who do not own a car 76
SPATIAL MISMATCH: EMPLOYMENT
Lacombe 1998

Massachusetts Division of Employment and Training Database

Companies in the Boston area

Employers in areas of high growth for entry-level work, who can be reached within 30 minutes by transit 0
U.S. Bureau of the Census

Public Use Microdata Survey

Housing units in Cleveland-Akron area, Ohioa

Available jobs accessible by public transportation in less than 40 minutes 8 to 15
Lacombe 1998

Massachusetts Division of Employment and Training Database

Companies in the Boston area

Employers in the Boston area who are within one-quarter mile of transit 32
Rich 1997

Survey of Businesses

Employers in Atlanta, Georgia

Entry-level jobs that are transit accessible 46

aCited in LaCombe 1998.

bCited in Housing Assistance Council 1997.

aCited in Coulton et al. 1996.

 

Table 21

National Estimates:

Multiple Barriers

Data Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Olson and Pavetti 1996

National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1991

Female welfare recipients

Welfare recipients facing two or more severe barriers to employment. (Barriers examined include own medical needs, children's chronic medical needs, substance abuse, mental illness, and low basic skills.)
 

Welfare recipients facing two or more severe or moderate barriers to employment. (Barriers examined include own medical needs, children's chronic medical needs, substance abuse, mental illness, and low basic skills.)

13

 

50

Quint et al. 1991

New Chance Demonstration Program, Survey of staff about participants

Female welfare recipients from 15 sites

Welfare recipients facing two or more barriers to employment. (Barriers examined include substance abuse, housing, and domestic violence.) 40

 

Table 22

State and Local Estimates:

Multiple Barriers

Data Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 
Pavetti 1995

Case file reviews

Female welfare recipients in Utah

Welfare recipients facing two or more barriers to employment (Barriers examined include domestic violence, housing, medical needs, disabilities, substance abuse, mental health, and children's medical needs or behavioral problems.) 34

 

Table 23

State and Local Estimates:

Subgroups with Specific Co-Occurring Barriers

Data Source and Population

Barrier Definition
 
Percentage
 

MENTAL ILLNESS, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, AND HOUSING INSTABILITY

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1994a

Survey and clinical records data

Homeless men and women from four McKinney Demonstration sites

Homeless adults with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems 58

MENTAL ILLNESS AND HOUSING INSTABILITY

Wood et al. 1990

Survey data

Low-income families in Los Angeles (half of whom were homeless)

Homeless women with a history of hospitalization for mental health problems 14
Padgett et al. 1990

Survey data, several mental health status scales, and clinical observations

Homeless men and women in New York City

Homeless adults who need psychiatric treatment 50

SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND HOUSING INSTABILITY

Padgett et al. 1990

Survey data, hospital records data, and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test

Homeless men and women in New York City

Homeless adults who need drug treatment 24
Padgett et al. 1990

Survey data, hospital records data, and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test

Homeless men and women in New York City

Homeless adults who need treatment for alcoholism 29
Wood et al. 1990

Survey data

Low-income families in Los Angeles (half of whom were homeless)

Homeless women who abuse drugs 32

Table 23 (continued)

Subgroups with Specific Co-Occurring Barriers

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Curcio 1997

Passaic County Survey

Female welfare recipients in New Jersey

Domestic violence victims receiving welfare who have drug or alcohol problems 19
Bassuk et al. 1996

Better Homes Fund Survey and substance abuse assessment instruments

Low-income women in Massachusetts (most were welfare recipients, half were homeless)

Domestic violence victims receiving welfare who suffer from alcohol/drug abuse or dependency 38
Najavits 1997

Estimates based on hospital data

Women in substance abuse treatment, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA

Women in substance abuse treatment who have been physically or sexually abused during their lifetime

50 to 90

Stevens and Arbiter 1995

Survey data

Women in substance abuse treatment

Women in substance abuse treatment who reported being assaulted or raped 90 to 95

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND MENTAL ILLNESS

Lloyd 1997

Survey data

Low-income women (including welfare recipients) in Chicago

Domestic violence victims receiving welfare who report problems with depression 42
Curcio 1997

Passaic County Survey

Female welfare recipients in New Jersey

Domestic violence victims receiving welfare who suffer from severe depression 54

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND HOUSING INSTABILITY

Bassuk et al. 1996

Better Homes Fund Survey and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Low-income women in Massachusetts (most were welfare recipients, half were homeless)

Homeless women who were also victims of severe domestic violence during the past two years 32
Wood et al. 1990

Survey data

Low-income families in Los Angeles (half of whom were homeless)

Homeless women who were also victims of domestic violence 35