Hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP) are acute infections of the that occur, by definition, in hospitalized patients. The bacteria that commonly cause HABP and VABP include Gram-negative bacilli including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Legionella.
The economic burden associated with HABP and VABP is significant. HABP/VABP is currently the second most common type of nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). HABP accounts for up to a quarter of all ICU infections and for over half of the antibacterial drugs prescribed, with nearly 90 percent of ICU episodes occurring during mechanical ventilation. HABP/VABP increases patients’ duration of hospital stay by several days, increasing treatment costs substantially