Before calculating the expected revenues that would be earned by the manufacturer of a new ABOM vaccine, we first estimated the total number of doses that would be required per patient and the average expected price per dose. These were then multiplied by the projected portion of the population that would use the vaccine over the next 20 years (total product life). Consistent with the assumptions made in O’Brien, et al. (2009), in which the authors estimated the projected benefits and cost-effectiveness of new vaccines for otitis media that were being developed, we chose to assume that its theoretical new vaccine would require four doses. To estimate an average price per dose, we consulted the most recent Vaccine Price List, available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, and took the average of the minimum and maximum prices reported in the pediatric vaccine list ($9 and $116, respectively) to get an estimated price of $63.