Total Number of Cases that Result in Death
According to mortality data obtained from the NVSR, there were 50,774 deaths attributed to pneumonia in 2009; this is equal to a mortality rate of 16.5 per 100,000 population, which is equivalent to 51,683 deaths in 2011 (U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, 2010).
Similar to ABSSSI, we used the Compressed Mortality File and data on life expectancies by age available from the National Vital Statistics Report (NVSR). The 2009 deaths were broken down by age group in the NVSR, and we applied the same proportion of deaths by age group to the expected number of deaths in 2011. To illustrate the calculation, there were estimated to be 13,971 deaths caused by pneumonia among Americans aged 75-84 in 2011. The life expectancy for an 80-year-old is 8.8 years; therefore, total QALYs lost by the 75-84 age cohort is 122,945 (8.8 × 13,971). Summing lost QALYs across all ages yielded a total of 572,741 QALYs lost due to CABP deaths in 2011.
To calculate VSL-based mortality costs, we multiplied the number of deaths in each age group by the VSL for those age groups. For CABP, this resulted in $274 billion in mortality costs. The average per-patient VSL, weighted by the number of deaths by age, is $5.3 million.