Surveillance reports indicate there were 888,904 PLWHA in the United States in 2010. Of that total, we calculated that almost 1 in 10 (81,100) were receiving HOPWA or RWP housing assistance.7, 8 However, this assumes that no individual received housing services from both HOPWA and RWP in the same year; as a result the total number served is not unduplicated and may be overstated. The proportion of PLWHA receiving HOPWA or RWP housing services varied significantly by state.9 In Maine, for example, more than 40 percent of PLWHA received federal housing assistance in 2010, but in Arkansas, Kansas, New Jersey, and Virginia, 5 percent or less received housing assistance (see Appendix B).
People who are homeless in the United States have a higher rate of HIV/AIDS than the general population. According to HUD’s Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR), on a single night in January 2010, 3.9 percent of the adult sheltered homeless population self-reported living with HIV/AIDS, roughly 10 times the percentage of the adult general population living with HIV/AIDS (about 0.37 percent).10 In addition to the 81,100 persons receiving housing services funded by HOPWA or RWP in 2010, an estimated 13,940 homeless people with HIV/AIDS and their families received Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) services through HUD’s Continuum of Care (CoC) grant program (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2010 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress.).11 These Permanent Supportive Housing services are funded through the Shelter Plus Care (S+C) program and the Supportive Housing Program (SHP) under the CoC program. The CoC program is now a single grant program that includes the Supportive Housing program, the Shelter Plus Care program, and the Moderate Rehabilitation/Single Room Occupancy (SRO) program.12
Unfortunately, it is impossible to determine exactly how many PLWHA currently need housing assistance. HOPWA grantees provide an annual estimate of unmet housing needs, but they do not use a standard method for making their calculations. In 2010, HOPWA grantees estimated that 191,809 HOPWA-eligible households had some form of unmet housing need at some point during the year.
7 The number 888,904 does not include American Samoa (2 people) or the Northern Mariana Islands (14).
8 Comprises 62,297 HIV-positive participants served by HOPWA and 18,803 served by RWP (3,049 of the 18,803 RWP participants had a “missing” or “unknown” HIV status).
9 State numbers reported are from the RWP Data Report (versus the RWP Services Report), which are not unduplicated across providers.
10 CDC. “Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data—United States and 6 U.S.-Dependent Areas—2010.” HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012; June 2012. Available at [http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/statistics_2010_HIV_Surveillance_Report_vol_17_no_3.pdf]. Percentage calculated using 2010 Census Data for total U.S. population in 2010 (308,745,538). Annual data for the percentage of PLWHA who are homeless are not available.
11 Permanent Supportive Housing funding is provided through the CoC Grant program via Shelter Plus Care (S+C) or the Supportive Housing Program (SHP).
12 These programs were consolidated under the HEARTH Act of 2009. The HEARTH Act was enacted after the 2010 AHAR was produced.
13 For HUD Consolidated Annual Performance Evaluation Report reporting methods, see [https://www.onecpd.info/resource/1011/hopwa-caper-form-hud-40110-d].