Analysis of Children's Health Insurance Patterns: Findings from the SIPP. c. Distribution of Socioeconomic Characteristics within Coverage Groups

05/12/1999

Table 7, which is analogous to Table 4, gives the percentage distribution of children by poverty level, parents' employment, and parents' education within each class of insurance coverage.

Children in families between 100 and 200 percent of poverty account for 39 percent of the uninsured. The size of this portion of the uninsured is important because it includes the children addressed most explicitly by the CHIP legislation. Older children between 50 and 100 percent of poverty also constitute a prime target of CHIP. Across all ages this group accounts for 21 percent of the uninsured. Somewhat surprisingly, however, uninsured children in families above 300 percent of poverty, at 10 to 11 percent of all uninsured children, are nearly as numerous as uninsured children in families below 50 percent of poverty, who account for 12 percent of the total.

It is particularly clear from Table 7 how Medicaid complements employer-sponsored and other insurance coverage. Children below 100 percent of poverty account for only 5.3 percent of all children with employer-sponsored coverage and 13 percent of those with other coverage, but they account for 67 percent of the children covered by Medicaid. Children between 100 and 200 percent of poverty account for relatively similar shares of all children covered by employer-sponsored plans, Medicaid, or other insurance. Children above 200 percent of poverty represent 75 percent of the children covered by employer-sponsored plans and 58 percent of the children covered by other insurance but only 9 percent of the children covered by Medicaid.

TABLE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN'S SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS BY INSURANCE COVERAGE: SEPTEMBER 1994
Socioeconomic Characteristic Employer - Sponsored Medicaid Other Uninsured
Poverty Level 100 100 100 100
    Less than 50% FPL 1.5 34.2 6.2 11.8
    50% to < 100% FPL 3.8 32.5 6.7 21.2
    100% to < 200% FPL 20 24.3 28.6 38.7
    200% to < 300% FPL 25.6 5.5 18.5 17.8
    300% FPL or Greater 49.1 3.5 39.9 10.5
Parents' Employment 100 100 100 100
    1 or More Full Time 94.2 30.1 86.7 68.7
    Part Time Only 2.8 10.2 7.2 9.1
    No Working Parent 2 54.1 4.5 18.2
    No Parent Present 0.9 5.6 1.5 4
Parents' Education 100 100 100 100
    No Parent Present 0.9 5.6 1.5 4
    6 Years or Less 0.4 5.5 0 7.7
    7 to 11 Years 3.6 26.9 1.2 17.4
    12 Years 29.6 42.4 24.8 41.7
    Attended College 27.2 15.3 26.8 18.1
    4-Year College Degree 19.7 2.3 21.4 6.9
    Graduate Work 18.6 2 24.2 4.1
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1992 Panel.

With respect to parents' employment what stands out is the 69 percent of uninsured children who have at least one parent employed full-time. At the same time, children with parents working part-time account for only 19 percent of the uninsured. Children with no working parents account for 18 percent of the uninsured but 54 percent of those enrolled in Medicaid.

Children whose more educated parent had exactly 12 years of schooling constitute one-third of all children under 19, but they represent 42 percent of children enrolled in Medicaid and 42 percent of the uninsured. Interestingly, the uninsured are distributed almost identically below and above this modal educational level whereas Medicaid enrollees come disproportionately from children whose parents had less than 12 years of education. This latter group contributes only 4 percent of children with employer-sponsored coverage and 1 percent of those with other coverage

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