Analysis of Children's Health Insurance Patterns: Findings from the SIPP. b. Distribution of Insurance Coverage

05/12/1999

Table 6 provides estimates of differential insurance coverage by family poverty level, parents' employment, and parents' education.

As we would expect, both employer-sponsored coverage and Medicaid are strongly related to the child's poverty level, but in opposite directions. Only 11 percent of children in families below 50 percent of poverty and 21 percent of those between 50 and 100 percent of poverty have employer-sponsored coverage. More than half of those in families between 100 and 200 percent of poverty have such coverage, and this proportion rises to 90 percent among children in families above 300 percent of poverty. For Medicaid we find that 70 percent of children below 50 percent of poverty and 53 percent of those between 50 and 100 percent of poverty are reported to be covered. Medicaid coverage declines to 20 percent among those between 100 and 200 percent of poverty then plunges to 5 percent for those between 200 and 300 percent of poverty and drops further to below 2 percent among children at 300 percent of poverty or higher.

TABLE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF CHILDREN'S INSURANCE COVERAGE BY SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS: SEPTEMBER 1994
Socioeconomic Characteristic Employer- Sponsored Medicaid Other Uninsured Total
Poverty Level          
    Less than 50% FPL 10.8 70.2 2.8 16.2 100
    50% to < 100% FPL 21.2 53.1 2.4 23.3 100
    100% to < 200% FPL 54.4 19.6 5.1 20.9 100
    200% to < 300% FPL 80 5.1 3.8 11.1 100
    300% FPL or Greater 89.6 1.9 4.7 3.8 100
Parents' Employment          
    1 or More Full Time 77 7.3 4.6 11.1 100
    Part Time Only 34.7 37.2 5.8 22.3 100
    No Working Parent 9.3 72.9 1.3 16.5 100
    No Parent Present 26.8 47.4 2.8 23 100
Parents' Education          
    No Parent Present 26.8 47.4 2.8 23 100
    6 Years or Less 11.1 45.8 0 43.1 100
    7 to 11 Years 24.1 52.6 0.5 22.9 100
    12 Years 56.9 24.1 3.1 15.9 100
    Attended College 73.4 12.2 4.7 9.7 100
    4-Year College Degree 85.2 2.9 6 6 100
    Graduate Work 86.2 2.7 7.3 3.8 100
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation, 1992 Panel.

Other insurance shows little relationship to poverty level. Children in families below poverty are somewhat less likely to have other insurance coverage, but there is no variation among children above poverty. Uninsurance is inversely related to poverty level but not linearly: children below 50 percent of poverty have a lower rate of uninsurance than children between 50 percent and 200 percent of poverty. Clearly, the Medicaid coverage that is available to children below 50 percent of poverty explains this group's comparatively low rate of uninsurance.

Parents' employment has a very strong relationship with the child's insurance status as well. Children with at least one parent working full time have the highest rate of employer-sponsored coverage at 77 percent, the lowest rate of Medicaid coverage at 7.3 percent, and the lowest rate of uninsurance at 11 percent. Employer-sponsored coverage plunges to 9 percent, and Medicaid coverage rises to 73 percent when there is no working parent in the household. Uninsurance rises as well but to a level between that of children with parents employed full time versus part time. Children with no parent present have rates of both employer-sponsored coverage and Medicaid coverage that are between those of children whose parents work part time and children whose parents do not work at all, but they have the highest rate of uninsurance, at 23 percent.

Parents' education is highly related to the incidence of every one of the four coverage groups. Employer-sponsored coverage increases from 11 percent to 86 percent from the lowest education level (six years or less) to the highest (some graduate work). Medicaid coverage declines from 46 percent to 3 percent between the lowest and highest levels of education although children with parents educated only 7 to 11 years have a higher Medicaid participation rate (53 percent) than those with less educated parents. Other insurance coverage grows from 0 percent to 7 percent between the lowest and highest levels of education while the rate of uninsurance declines from 43 percent to 4 percent. For each of these four coverage groups this is by far the broadest range of rates seen for any of the demographic or socioeconomic variables. Given the nonlinear relationship between family poverty level and a child's lack of insurance, we speculate that the strength of the relationship between parents' education and their children's lack of insurance may reflect more than just differential access to health insurance. Certainly this merits further investigation, including the examination of education differentials in a multivariate context, but if the relationship holds up there are clear policy implications for efforts to increase enrollment in Medicaid and the new state Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) initiatives.

View full report

Preview
Download

"sippchip.pdf" (pdf, 56.23Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table1.PDF" (pdf, 3.96Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table2.PDF" (pdf, 4Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table3.PDF" (pdf, 3.76Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table4.PDF" (pdf, 3.88Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table5.PDF" (pdf, 3.99Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table6.PDF" (pdf, 5.13Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table7.PDF" (pdf, 4.34Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table8.PDF" (pdf, 4.91Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenB_table9.PDF" (pdf, 5Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table10.PDF" (pdf, 4.96Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table11.PDF" (pdf, 4.98Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table12.PDF" (pdf, 4.19Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table13.PDF" (pdf, 5.08Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table14.PDF" (pdf, 5.15Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table15.PDF" (pdf, 4.63Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table16.PDF" (pdf, 4.18Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendB_table17.PDF" (pdf, 4.19Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table1.PDF" (pdf, 4.5Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table2.PDF" (pdf, 3.96Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table3.PDF" (pdf, 4.2Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table4.PDF" (pdf, 4.22Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table5.PDF" (pdf, 3.67Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table6.PDF" (pdf, 3.85Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table7.PDF" (pdf, 3.87Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table8.PDF" (pdf, 4.33Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppenC_table9.PDF" (pdf, 3.94Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table10.PDF" (pdf, 4.34Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table11.PDF" (pdf, 3.69Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table12.PDF" (pdf, 4.63Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table13.PDF" (pdf, 3.89Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table14.PDF" (pdf, 4.6Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table15.PDF" (pdf, 4.21Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table16.PDF" (pdf, 3.86Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table17.PDF" (pdf, 3.88Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table18.PDF" (pdf, 4.61Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table19.PDF" (pdf, 4.22Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table20.PDF" (pdf, 3.89Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table21.PDF" (pdf, 3.9Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table22.PDF" (pdf, 4.21Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table23.PDF" (pdf, 4.74Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table24.PDF" (pdf, 3.98Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table25.PDF" (pdf, 4.04Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table26.PDF" (pdf, 4.7Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®

View full report

Preview
Download

"AppendC_table27.PDF" (pdf, 4.46Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®