As seen in Table 3, Whites are the most prevalent recipients overall. This prevalence is lower among those age 65 or more -- especially among those entering the program. Hispanics are the next most prevalent group of adults and the largest group of children recipients. The proportion of Hispanics increases almost 10% between continuing versus entering IHSS recipients in 2005. Blacks (about 17% overall, 11% among those age 65+) are the third most prevalent group. There are proportionately fewer Blacks among new recipients than among continuing recipients. The most striking changes are evident among Asians.22 These groups collectively account for about 10% of recipients. However, among those age 65+ Chinese (10%), Filipino (5%), and Vietnamese (4%) combine for almost 20% of all recipients; and as a group, Asian and Pacific Islanders are second to Whites in prevalence of participation. They are basically equal in number to Whites among new recipients in 2005. Within column comparisons show that race/ethnicity group distributions vary by age of recipient and the use of a family member versus a Non-Relative as their paid providers. These patterns are relatively stable when comparing continuing to new IHSS recipients.
Within row comparisons, Table 4, show the propensity of race/ethnicity groups to use one type of provider over another. For example among continuing recipients age 3-17 more than 80% of the Hispanic IHSS recipients have Parent provider. This contrasts with just over two-thirds of Whites and Asian recipients, and 60% of Black recipients having Parent providers. For the new IHSS recipients, the percentage having Parent providers drops about 10% among all race/ethnic groups. The differences narrow somewhat among other recipient age groups, but two patterns are evident. Hispanic and Asian recipients are more likely to have Spouse and/or Parent providers than the other groups. Asians are the most likely of all the groups to use Other Relative providers. In contrast, more than half of the White and Black recipients have Non-Relative providers. These patterns are consistent among recipients age 18-64 as well as those 65+. Comparing continuing with new recipients, there is a reduction across all age and race/ethnic groups in the percentage having Parent providers and an increase in the percentage with Other Relative providers.
The Advance Pay and Restaurant Meals voucher programs have a much different race/ethnic distribution than IHSS generally: Meals program, Whites (64.3%), Hispanic (13.7%), Black (10.2%), Asian/Other (11.8%); Advance Pay, Whites (68.5%), Hispanics (13.7%), Black (14.3%), Asian/Other (3.5%).
22. Most prevalent are Chinese, Filipinos, and Vietnamese. Table B-1 in Appendix B, shows the distribution of expanded race/ethnicity categories for continuing and entering recipients in 2005.