Adoption USA. A Chartbook Based on the 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents. Appendix tables

11/01/2009

Table 1. Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007

Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007. All children


CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Special health care needs14,13619%
Special health care needs59,62281%
Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007. All adopted children


CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Special health care needs70239%
No special health care needs1,08061%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Foster care66137%
Private domestic67738%
International44425%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Relative43624%
Non-relative1,34676%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Knew child prior to adoptive match58233%
Did not know child previously1,20067%
Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007. Children adopted from foster care


CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Special health care needs35554%
No special health care needs30646%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Receiving a subsidy51378%
Not receiving a subsidy14822%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Relative15323%
Non-relative50877%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Knew child prior to adoptive match26240%
Did not know child previously39960%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Foster parented child prior to adoptive match45469%
Was not previously child's foster parent20731%
Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007. Children adopted privately, domestically


Number ThousandsPercent
Special health care needs21832%
No special health care needs45968%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Relative27641%
Non-relative40159%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Knew child prior to adoptive match30144%
Did not know child previously37656%
Number and percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by adoptive status; number and percentage distribution of adopted children1 ages 0-17 by various characteristics: United States, 2007. Children adopted internationally


CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Special health care needs12829%
No special health care needs31671%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Relative+2%
Non-relative43698%
CategoriesNumber ThousandsPercent
Knew child prior to adoptive match+4%
Did not know child previously42696%

 

Table 2. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by children’s history and prior relationship with parents, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Children's history and prior relationship with parentsAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Ever lived with birth family
    Among all children4359 PP, II39 II25
    By relative/non-relative adoptive status
        Among children adopted by relatives737871+
        Among children adopted by non-relatives3353 PP, II1724
Where child lived before living with parent
    Birth parents/relatives2222 PP, II33 II+
    Foster family2244 PP, II+ II24
    Adopted at birth, or age at adoptive placement < 1 month3222 PP, II62 II+
    Congregate care2311 PP, II4 II70
    Other care1++ I+
Parent and child were relatives prior to adoptive match2423 PP, II41 II+
Parent knew child prior to the adoptive match3340 II44 II+
Prior relationship to the child
    Relative, knew child prior to adoption2117 PP, II37 II+
    Relative, did not know child prior to adoption46 II4 II+
    Non-relative, knew child prior to adoption1222 PP, II7 II+
    Non-relative, did not know child prior to adoption6455 II52 II95
Parent was a foster parent to the child
    Parents who became foster parents hoping to adopt--42----
    Parents who fostered without originally intending to adopt--33----
    Parents who did not foster prior to adoption--24----


1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 3. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by race, ethnicity, gender, and country of origin by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by race, ethnicity, gender, and country of origin by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007


Race and Hispanic origin of childPercent
White, non-Hispanic19
Black, non-Hispanic3
Asian, non-Hispanic59
Other, non-Hispanic [1]2
Hispanic origin17
Percent
Child is male33
Child is female67
Child gender, by race/Hispanic origin of childPercent
% male, among non-Hispanic white children48
% male, among non-Hispanic black children61
% male, among non-Hispanic Asian children19
% male, among children of Hispanic origin55
Child's region of origin (international adoptions)Percent
Asia61
Europe20
North America13
South America5
Africa1
Child's country of origin (international adoptions)Percent
China (mainland)33
Russia13
Guatemala11
South Korea11
India, Kazakhstan, Colombia, Ukraine, Philippines, Ethiopia15
Other16

 

Table 4. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by other demographic and socio-economic characteristics, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Other demographic and socio-economic characteristicsAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child's current age
    0-2 years166 **3 PP,II6 I10
    3-4 years119 *6 II7 II14
    5-9 years273031 PP,I22 II39
    10-12 years1719182217
    13-14 years121419 II14 II8
    15-17 years1723 **23 II29 II12
Parent's current age
    Among all children
        Under age 40--14131513
        >= 40 and < 50--3634 II28 II51
        >= 50 and < 60--373840 I32
        Age 60 or older--1416 II17 II5
    By presence of parent's spouse/partner status
        Among children whose parents have a spouse/partner
            Under age 40--17162114
           >= 40 and < 50--4137 II35 II53
           >= 50 and < 60--3639 I38 II30
           Age 60 or older--6+ II6 II+
        Among children whose parents are single
            Under age 40--8+++
           >= 40 and < 50--27292143
           >= 50 and < 60--38354138
           Age 60 or older--263029+
Spouse/partner's current age (among children whose parents have a spouse/partner)
    Under age 40--13+1413
    >= 40 and < 50--4136 II4148
    >= 50 and < 60--38423436
    Age 60 or older--911 II10 II+
Age gap between parent/spouse and child (whichever is smaller)
    < 30 years--1015 II11 II+
    >= 30 and < 35 years--1916 I1922
    >= 35 and < 40 years--25242430
    >= 40 and < 45 years--24222328
    >= 45 and < 50 years--12131013
    >= 50 years--1011 II13 II+
Education of parent with highest level of attainment
    Less than high school95 **7 II6 II+
    12 years, high school graduate2315 **22 P,II15 II+
    More than high school6880 **70 P,II79 II95
Household income-to-poverty ratio2
    At or below 100% poverty level1812 **16 II17 II+
    Above 100% to at or below 200% poverty level211930 PP,II18 II+
    Above 200% to at or below 300% poverty level181719 II20 II11
    Above 300% to at or below 400% poverty level14149 II12 II24
    Above 400% poverty level3037 **25 PP,II33 II58
Parental employment3
    Among all children
        Parents work full-time--3431 II31 II43
        Other work schedule--4345 P37 II51
        Parents are retired--86 PP,II15 II+
        No parents work (excluding retirees)--1518 II18 II+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Parents work full-time--3943 P28 II46
            Other work schedule--53445952
            No parents work (including retirees)--+++ I+
        Among children ages 6-11
            Parents work full-time--3229 I27 II42
            Other work schedule--4754 PP37 I51
            No parents work (including retirees)--2117 PP,II36 II+
        Among children ages 12-17
            Parents work full-time--34313540
            Other work schedule--3536 I29 II51
            No parents work (including retirees)--3133 II36 II+

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 Parents reported their total combined family income during the prior calendar year for all members of the family, before taxes. The amount was then compared with the federal poverty threshold, as established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty).
3 The "full time" category includes children with single parents working full-time or two parents, both working full-time. The "retired" category includes children with single parents who are retired and with two parents, both of whom are retired.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable or not available.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 5. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by family characteristics and structure, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Family characteristics and structureAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child’s birth siblings
    Child has birth siblings never available for adoption--2519 PP, II41 II11
    Child has birth siblings available for adoption that parent(s) did not adopt--1524 PP, II13 II+
    Child has birth sibling(s) also adopted by parent--2136 PP, II15 II7
    Parent didn’t know if child’s birth siblings ever available for adoption--109119
    Parent didn’t know if child has birth siblings--144 II5 II43
    Child has no known birth siblings--158 PP, II15 II26
Marital status of child's parents2
    Married716970 PP, II59 II82
    Cohabiting82 **+ P++
    Single or other2129 **29 PP, II38 II16
Child lives with married adoptive parents--6059 II52 II73
Family structure
    Two married adoptive parents, also married at adoption--5553 II47 II70
    Two married adoptive parents, not married at adoption--56 I5+
    Two non-married adoptive parents in household--1+++
    Only one adoptive parent in household--3940 II47 ll26
Number of children under 18 in household
    One2338 **27 PP, II48 II37
    Two393732 II36 II47
    Three2715 **24 PP, II910
    Four or more111016 PP, II7+
Birth and adoptive children in family
    Focal (adopted) child is only child in family--1911 PP, II2423
    Child has sibling(s) who are adopted and none who were born to parent--3027 II22 II48
    Child has siblings(s) born to parent and no adopted siblings--2622 PP33 II19
    Child has adopted sibling(s) and sibling(s) born to parent--2540 PP, II21 II10

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 For children with two parents, the second parent may or may not have adopted the child.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parent

Table 6. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by neighborhood characteristics, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Neighborhood characteristicsAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child lives in a Metropolitan Statistical Area27876757679
Child lives in a safe neighborhood7179 **777983
Child lives in a neighborhood with no amenities3544 II+ II+
Child lives in a neighborhood with no characteristics of poor physical condition47175 *747380

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 On the NSCH file, the MSA status was suppressed for children in states in which either the sum total population for all MSAs, or the sum total population for all non-MSAs, was less than 500,000 persons. Among these children, we assumed that children living in primarily urban states were living in MSAs and that children living in other states were not living in MSAs.
3 Amenities include 1) sidewalks or walking paths, 2) a park or playground area, 3) a recreation center, community center, or boys’ or girls’ club, and 4) a library or bookmobile.
4 Characteristics of poor physical condition include 1) litter or garbage, 2) poorly kept or dilapidated housing, and 3) vandalism.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 7. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by physical health and factors related to health, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Physical Health and factors related to healthAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child's health status is excellent or very good
    Among all children848581 II84 II93
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5879078 II89 I98
        Among children ages 6-118487878294
        Among children ages 12-178381788484
Child has special health care needs
    Among all children1939 **54 PP, II3229
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-51222 **39 II25 II10
        Among children ages 6-112244 **59 PP, II3533
        Among children ages 12-172343 **52 PP33 I48
Missed > 10 school days due to illness/injury (Ages 6+)
    Among all children6778+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-1157+++
        Among children ages 12-1777+++
Child has moderate or severe health difficulties
    Among all children
        Moderate or severe health problem(s)1026 **39 PP, II21 I14
        Mild current condition or non-current condition2126 **282524
        Never diagnosed with a chronic condition6948 **33 PP, II54 I62
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Moderate or severe health problem(s)511 **26 P, II+ II+
            Mild current condition or non-current condition1214++14
            Never diagnosed with a chronic condition8374 **57 P, II7583
        Among children ages 6-11
            Moderate or severe health problem(s)1229 **43 PP, II2117
            Mild current condition or non-current condition2326312423
            Never diagnosed with a chronic condition6545 **26 PP, II5660
        Among children ages 12-17
            Moderate or severe health problem(s)1430 **38 P2427
            Mild current condition or non-current condition2831273140
            Never diagnosed with a chronic condition5939 **344534
Child is impacted by asthma
    Among all children
        Never diagnosed with asthma8781 **76 PP, II8386
        No longer has asthma, or asthma is mild1115 **20 PP, II1112
        Asthma is currently moderate or severe34 *56 I+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Never diagnosed with asthma9185 **76 II8392
            No longer has asthma, or asthma is mild79+++
            Asthma is currently moderate or severe26 **+ II+ II+
        Among children ages 6-11
            Never diagnosed with asthma8582778586
            No longer has asthma, or asthma is mild12151713+
            Asthma is currently moderate or severe3++++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Never diagnosed with asthma8479 *758279
            No longer has asthma, or asthma is mild13172312+
            Asthma is currently moderate or severe3++++
Child was injured and required medical attention during the last 12 months (Ages 0-5)101418+13
Child's health insurance coverage
    Among all children
        No health insurance95 **+6+
        Public health insurance2936 **59 PP, II33 II+
        Some other type of health insurance626037 PP, II61 II92
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            No health insurance84 **+++
            Public health insurance3522 **66 PP, II+ II+
            Some other type of health insurance5774 **33 PP, II76 II94
        Among children ages 6-11
            No health insurance10+ **++ I+
            Public health insurance2839 **66 PP, II35 II+
            Some other type of health insurance625731 PP, II56 II94
        Among children ages 12-17
            No health insurance106 **+5+
            Public health insurance2438 **52 PP, II37 II+
            Some other type of health insurance6656 **43 PP, II58 II84
Child's insurance status now and over past 12 months
    Among all children
        Consistently insured over past 12 months8591 **94 P8891
        Currently insured but without insurance sometime in past 12 months64+ P6+
        Not currently insured but had insurance sometime in past 12 months43 **+3+
        No insurance at all in past 12 months52 **+ P++
Child was consistently insured over past 12 months
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-58593 **98 I9490
        Among children ages 6-118491 **958692
        Among children ages 12-178590 *938690
Child has adequate health insurance
    Among all children7678807677
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-58183798086
        Among children ages 6-11757887 PP, II7468
        Among children ages 12-177476747680
Child receives coordinated, ongoing, comprehensive care within a medical home2
    Among all children586058 I58 I67
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-56468566873
        Among children ages 6-115564 **685768
        Among children ages 12-175354505559

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 Components of a medical home include: 1) Has a usual source for sick care, 2) Has a personal doctor or nurse, 3) Has no problems obtaining referrals when needed, 4) Receives effective care coordination, and 5) Receives family-centered care (1+ visits in past year).
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 8. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by social and emotional well-being, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Social and emotional well-beingAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child has been diagnosed with attachment disorder
    Among all children ages 0-17--1221 PP, II68
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-11--1220 PP, II++
        Among children ages 12-17--1624 PP+ I+
Child has been diagnosed with depression (Age 2+)
    Among all children ages 2+
        Child never diagnosed with condition9691 **909094
        No longer has condition, or condition is mild37 **86+
        Condition is currently moderate or severe12 *+++
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 12-17
            Child never diagnosed with condition9382 **838379
            No longer has condition, or condition is mild513 **1212+
            Condition is currently moderate or severe25 *+++
Child has been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD (Age 6+)
    Among all children ages 6+
        Child never diagnosed with condition9074 **62 PP, II8183
        No longer has condition, or condition is mild612 **17 PP, II9+
        Condition is currently moderate or severe414 **20 PP, II109
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-11
            Child never diagnosed with condition9179 **68 PP, II8588
            No longer has condition, or condition is mild510 **16 PP++
            Condition is currently moderate or severe411 **16 II++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Child never diagnosed with condition8869 **57 PP, II7875
            No longer has condition, or condition is mild814 **19 P, I11+
            Condition is currently moderate or severe417 **24 PP11+
Child has been diagnosed with behavior or conduct problems(Age 2+)
    Among all children ages 2+
        Child never diagnosed with condition9685 **75 PP, II8993
        No longer has condition, or condition is mild28 **11 P, II6+
        Condition is currently moderate or severe28 **14 PP, II5+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-11
            Child never diagnosed with condition9590 **82 P,II91 II99
            No longer has condition, or condition is mild25 *+ II+ I+
            Condition is currently moderate or severe35+ II+ II+
        Among children ages 12-17
            Child never diagnosed with condition9476 **66 PP, I8580
            No longer has condition, or condition is mild311 **14++
            Condition is currently moderate or severe313 **20 PP++
Child has problems with social behaviors (Age 6+)
    Among all children ages 6-17914 **18 P10+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-118916 PP, II++
        Among children ages 12-17918 **1915+
Child exhibits positive social behaviors (Age 6+)
    Among all children ages 6-179488 **83 P9189
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-119490 *869293
        Among children ages 12-179386 **819183

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.-- Not applicable or not available.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 9. Percentage distributions of children ages 5-17 by cognitive development and educational achievement, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Cognitive development and educational attainmentAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child has excellent or very good reading/language arts performance(Ages 5+)
    Among all children--5850 PP, II6463
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 5-11--6655 PP, II7174
        Among children ages 12-17--5045 P58 I41
Child has excellent or very good math performance (Ages 5+)
    Among all children--5341 PP, II5865
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 5-11--6450 PP, II67 II79
        Among children ages 12-17--4232 PP5139
Child usually/always engaged in school (Ages 6+)
    Among all children8169 **61 PP, II7473
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-118680 *73 P8683
        Among children ages 12-177558 **50 P6658
Child spends any time reading for pleasure on an average school day (Ages 6+)
    Among all children8479 *807881
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 6-118988908786
        Among children ages 12-177871 **707272

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
-- Not applicable or not available.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 10. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by family and community activities and context, by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Cognitive development and educational attainmentAll childrenAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Child is read to every day (Ages 0-5)4868 **667365
Child is sung to or told stories every day (Ages 0-5)5973 **687574
Family eats meals together 6-7 days per week5256 *54 II52 II64
Child participates in one or more organized activities outside of school, such as sports teams or lessons, clubs, or religious groups (Ages 6+)
    Among all children8185 **81 II85 II93
    By child's current age
        Ages 6-117989 **84 II90 II97
        Ages 12-178281788187
Child has been involved in any type of community service or volunteer work at school, church, or in the community during the past 12 months (Ages 12+)7883858278
Child attends religious services at least monthly
    Among all children7078 **87 PP, II77 II66
    By child's current age
        Ages 0-5636986 PP,II7059
        Ages 6-11768086 I8172
        Ages 12-177380 **89 PP,II7767

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 11. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by parenting and parent well-being,by adoptive status and adoption type: United States, 2007

Parenting and parent well-beingAll childrenAll
adopted children1
Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercentPercent
Parent-child relationship very warm/close
    Among all children--8175 PP, II8585
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5--97999995
        Among children ages 6-11--8781 P9390
        Among children ages 12-17--69647466
Among children whose parents have a spouse/partner, spouse/partner-child relationship very warm/close
    Among all children--7768 PP, II8083
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5--97989498
        Among children ages 6-11--79748781
        Among children ages 12-17--6151 P7065
Parent-child relationship, compared to parent's expectations
    Among all children
        Better than you ever expected--4236 P, II4446
        About what you expected--44444541
        More difficult than you ever expected--1519 PP, I1113
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Better than you ever expected--63576564
            About what you expected--33373034
            More difficult than you ever expected--++++
        Among children ages 6-11
            Better than you ever expected--41394538
            About what you expected--48464950
            More difficult than you ever expected--1115++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Better than you ever expected--33293636
            About what you expected--44444734
            More difficult than you ever expected--23271731
Among children whose parents have a spouse/partner, spouse/partner-child relationship, compared to expectations
    Among all children
        Better than you ever expected--39334540
        About what you expected--46494147
        More difficult than you ever expected--15181414
     By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Better than you ever expected--59646552
            About what you expected--39343347
            More difficult than you ever expected--++++
        Among children ages 6-11
            Better than you ever expected--38423833
            About what you expected--49495247
            More difficult than you ever expected--13+++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Better than you ever expected--2711 PP, II3933
            About what you expected--4654 P3846
            More difficult than you ever expected--2736 I23+
Having child in life, compared to parent's expectations
    Among all children
        Better than you ever expected--5140 PP, II54 I62
        About what you expected--3542 II36 II24
        More difficult than you ever expected--1318 PP914
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-5
            Better than you ever expected--71577673
            About what you expected--26362223
            More difficult than you ever expected--4+++
        Among children ages 6-11
            Better than you ever expected--5242 P, II5662
            About what you expected--3746 II3725
            More difficult than you ever expected--1112++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Better than you ever expected--4134 P, I4649
            About what you expected--3840 II41 II23
            More difficult than you ever expected--2125 PP14 I28
Parent experiences parental aggravation
    Among all children611 **16 PP, II79
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-54++ I++
        Among children ages 6-116911++
        Among children ages 12-17814 **19 PP8+
Parent copes very well with the demands of parenting
    Among all children6053 **495852
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 0-56766686963
        Among children ages 6-115953486250
        Among children ages 12-175547 **455239
Among children whose parents have a spouse/partner,
spouse/partner relationship quality
    Among all children
        Completely happy3538394233
        Very happy4849504752
        Fairly or not too happy1712 **111116

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
* Significantly different from the estimate for all children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable or not available.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health and 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 12. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by adoption satisfaction, by adoption type: United States, 2007.

Adoption satisfactionAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Parent would make same decision to adopt child
    Definitely would8781 PP, I93 I87
    Probably would1014 PP69
    Probably or definitely NOT36 PP++
Parent considered dissolving the adoption1 +2 + PP, I0 +0 +
Parent's perception of child's feelings about adoption (Ages 5+)
    Among all children ages 5-17
        Positive49475248
        Mostly positive43463848
        Negative, or not positive889+
    By child's current age
        Among children ages 5-11
            Positive51455949
            Mostly positive44493449
            Negative, or not positive5+++
        Among children ages 12-17
            Positive47484745
            Mostly positive43434244
            Negative, or not positive10+++

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 13. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by parent involvement and advocacy in the adoption community, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Parent involvement/advocacy in adoption communityAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Parent helped other adoptive families
    Helped other adoptive families4238 II34 II60
    Was asked, but did not help other adoptive families3+++
    Was not asked to help other adoptive families5660 II64 II36
Parent recruited other adoptive families
    Recruited other adoptive families69 PP, II4+
    Was asked, but did not recruit other families24 PP++
    Was not asked to recruit other adoptive families9287 PP, II9595

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 14. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by parents' prior connections to adoption, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Parents' prior connections to adoptionAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Parent's closest prior connection to adoption
    Either parent was adopted6746
    Else, sibling of parent was adopted443+
    Else, other relative(s) of parent was/were adopted31303032
    Else, friends of parent have adopted3533 II30 II48
    Else, no prior experience with adoption2426 P, II33 II10

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 15. Percentage distribution of children ages 0-17 by parents' motivation to adopt, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Motivation to adopt1All adopted children2Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Infertility5239 PP, II52 II72
Wanted to expand family6961 II60 II92
Wanted sibling for a child2424 PP, II16 II36
Had adopted child's sibling711 P, II7 II+
Wanted to provide a permanent home for a child8186 PP70 II90
Had already formed a bond/loved the child349 PP, II++
Related to child prior to adoption377 II11 II+

1 Categories are not mutually exclusive, so categories may sum to more than 100.
2 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
3 This category is based on verbatim explanations from respondents who reported some "other" reason for adopting.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 16. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by parents' satisfaction with their agency or attorney, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Satisfaction with attorney or agencyAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Satisfaction with attorney or agency
    Very positive5448 PP, I5757
    Positive35363733
    Mixed or negative1116 PP, II6 I10
For parents who fostered prior to adoption, options other than adoption were discussed with parent(s)--56----
For parents who fostered prior to adoption, parent(s) pressure by agency to adopt child--6 +----
Important information was not disclosed to parent(s)8134+

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 17. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by adoption expenses, by adoption type: United States, 2007

ExpensesAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Cost of adoption
    No cost----22 II+
    Less than $5,000----33 II+
    At least $5,000 but less than $10,000----13 II5
    At least $10,000 but less than $15,000----11 II19
    At least $15,000 but less than $20,000----10 II25
    $20,000 or more----12 II49
Cost of adoption
    Less than $10,000 (includes no cost)------7
    At least $10,000 but less than $15,000------19
    At least $15,000 but less than $20,000------25
    At least $20,000 but less than $25,000------25
    At least $25,000 but less than $30,000------11
    At least $30,000 but less than $35,000------8
    $35,000 or more------4
Cost of adoption
    Among all children
        No cost2956 PP, II22 II+
        Less than $5,0002329 II33 II+
        At least $5,000 but less than $10,00096 PP13 II5
        $10,000 or more399 PP, II33 II93
    By relative/non-relative adoptive status
        Among children adopted by relatives
            No cost5365 PP4677
            Less than $5,0004231 PP48+
            $5,000 or more5+++
        Among children adopted by non-relatives
            No cost2254 PP, II5 II+
            Less than $5,0001728 II22 II+
            $5,000 or more6119 PP, II73 II99
Filed for federal adoption tax credit28066 PP, II8486
Agency reimbursed some or all of cost--39----
Employer provided financial assistance136 PP, II13 II22

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 Children whose adoptions occurred prior to 1997, before the tax credit was available, are excluded from this analysis.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable or not available.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 18. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 adoption openness, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Openness of adoption Type of adoption
All adopted children1Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Child knows he/she is adopted (Age 5+)9794 PP, II98 II100
Pre-adoption agreement regarding openness (non-relative adoptions only)23232 PP, II67 II+
Any post-adoption contact with birth family (non-relative adoptions only)23639 PP, II68 II6

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 Parents who were related to the child prior to the adoption were not asked questions about pre-adoption agreements
regarding openness or about post adoption contact with the child's birth family.
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

Table 19. Percentage distributions of children ages 0-17 by receipt of post-adoption services and supports, by adoption type: United States, 2007

Post-adoption servicesAll adopted children1Type of adoption
Foster carePrivate domesticInternational
PercentPercentPercentPercent
Supports specific to adoption:
    Met with someone at agency to discuss post-adoption services
        Received service3536 PP,II25 II50
        Did not receive service, but wanted to79 I5+
        Did not receive and did not want service5856 PP,II69 II45
    Child support group (Ages 5+)
        Received service1110 II8 II19
        Did not receive service, but wanted to16171319
        Did not receive and did not want service7373 I80 II63
    Parent support group
        Received service3129 I26 I38
        Did not receive service, but wanted to1113119
        Did not receive and did not want service585763 I52
    Training for parent
        Received service3138 PP, I2529
        Did not receive service, but wanted to12121015
        Did not receive and did not want service5751 PP65 II56
    At least one needed adoption-specific support was not received post-adoption230352729
Additional adoption-specific supports:
    Use of web-based resources3024 II21 II53
Financial supports for adoption:
    Adoption agreement: Medicaid/health insurance
        Has adoption agreement including Medicaid AND subsidy--64----
        Has adoption agreement not including both of these--28----
        Does not have adoption agreement--8----
    Receipt of adoption subsidy
        Never received a subsidy--21----
        Ever received a subsidy, but not currently--+----
        Currently receives a subsidy--78----
Rehabilitative services:3    
    At least one rehabilitative service was received
        Among all children3746 PP,II3429
        By child's current age
            Among children ages 0-5919 PP,II5 +6 +
            Among children ages 5-1133392732
            Among children ages 12-1754604955
    Family counseling
        Received service20231917
        Did not receive service, but wanted to69 PP4+
        Did not receive and did not want service7469 PP,II7878
    Crisis counseling
        Received service36 PP, II++
        Did not receive service, but wanted to3+ I++
        Did not receive and did not want service9490 PP, II9697
    Mental health care for child (Ages 5+)
        Received service3946 P, I3335
        Did not receive service, but wanted to4+3+
        Did not receive and did not want service5850 P, I6460
    Child received mental health care service(s) (Ages 5+)
        By child's current age
            Among children ages 5-1127342025
            Among children ages 12-175057 P4353
    Psychiatric residential treatment/hospitalization for the child (Ages 8+)
        Received service47 I++
        Did not receive service, but wanted to++ PP+ I+
        Did not receive and did not want service9490 PP9795
    Child received psychiatric residential treatment/hospitalization (Ages14+)8+++
    Child received drug/alcohol services (Ages 13+)
        Received service4+++
        Did not receive service, but wanted to++++
        Did not receive and did not want service95949696
Other services:
    Had a mentor (Ages 5+)
        Received service1318 II13 II7
        Did not receive service, but wanted to1114 I10+
        Did not receive and did not want service7668 PP, II77 I85
    Had a tutor (Ages 5+)
        Received service36393236
        Did not receive service, but wanted to1112128
        Did not receive and did not want service53495556
At least one needed support not specific to adoption was not received post-adoption 42126 II2116

1 Adopted children were defined as those with at least one adoptive parent, but no biological parents, in the household.
2 Including having met with someone to discuss supports, support groups for children or parents, and parent training.
3 Including family counseling, crisis counseling, child mental health care, child residential treatment, and child drug/alcohol services.
4 Including family counseling, crisis counseling, child mental health care, child residential treatment, child drug/alcohol serviAces,
mentor, and tutor. Significantly different from the estimate for all adopted children (*: p<.10, **: p<.05).
P Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted from private domestic sources (P: p<.10, PP: p<.05).
I Significantly different from the estimate for children adopted internationally (I: p<.10, II: p<.05).
+ The relative standard error exceeds 0.30.
-- Not applicable.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 in percent distributions within categories due to rounding.
SOURCE: 2007 National Survey of Adoptive Parents.

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