AT/HM Interventions with Promise for Reducing Physical Strain among Family Caregivers
Lifting/transferring devices. The literature suggests a need for increased access to lifting and transferring devices to support caregiving in the home. The facility-based research has shown the effectiveness of mechanical aids for lifting and transferring combined with other interventions such as training in device use, collaborating with caregiving staff to assess the need for and select AT, and "zero lift" policies. Significant positive impacts were found on reduced caregiver injuries, resulting in fewer lost workdays and long-term cost savings, and increased feelings of comfort and safety for people receiving care. These studies also reported the dangers of increased caregiver injuries of lifting a non-weight-bearing person without a mechanical device.
In contrast, of the few studies with home workers, most focused on back-belts, and the research on the effectiveness of these devices has been mixed. NIOSH guidelines recommend that equipment such as a hoist or mechanical lift be used for a whole body lift of a non-weight-bearing person. Gait belts and slings can help position and provide back-up when assisting a partially weight-bearing person. They can also be used for maneuvering a non-weight-bearing person into a hoist sling.5 One pilot program in Canada (Craib et al., 2007) used a registry of loaner lifts as an affordable way to provide home care workers with access to ceiling lifts.
In the studies with older adults and family caregivers at home, lifting and transferring equipment was one of the least frequently needed types of AT/HM but were used by some families.
Small, low-cost AT/HM. In the home-based studies, many of the devices used were low-cost, such as hand-held showers, reachers, grab bars, nightlights, and tub mats. These studies highlight the importance of assisting older adults with proper assessment of the need for AT/HM and raising awareness and acceptance of new technologies. Older adult receptivity to using AT/HM was related to both characteristics of the device, such as intrusiveness, and characteristics of the older adult, such as social support. Also important was the capacity of service agencies to provide AT/HM to older adults, including CM/SW training on the benefits and uses of AT/HM as well as the time allocated for tasks related to these services. As with the studies with older adults, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of small, low-cost devices. The most common HMs needed included enhancements to bathroom safety (grab bars, walk-in shower, hand-held showerhead, shower seat); modifications to address the older adult's memory loss, such as additional lights, signs, and labels; and devices for activity engagement.
Electronic technologies. Several studies reported on the usefulness of electronic technologies in the home, such as telehealth care and remote monitoring systems. However, in some cases the technological burden of the devices was a challenge for caregivers. Future research and development may lead to more user-friendly versions of these technologies.
Home assessments, training, and OT. Several experimental studies tested the benefits of providing older adults and/or family caregivers at home with OT interventions, including AT/HM. Benefits included less need for assistance, reduced caregiver burden, less time spent caregiving, decrease in caregiver depression, enhanced caregiver skills, enhanced caregiver ability to self-care, fewer problem behaviors of people with dementia, and reductions in health care costs.
A key element of these interventions is a person-centered approach, in which OTs assess the home and work with the older person to identify solutions to increase their capacity to age in place. The OTs also assisted in ordering the devices and arranging for installation, as well as provided training and conducted follow-up visits. All of these studies found positive results, including user satisfaction with the devices, reduced functional decline and improved functioning, reduced depression, reduced need for paid assistance, and lower expenditures for nurse and case management visits. Although this decreased need for assistance would likely reduce physical strain for caregivers, this was not directly measured in any of the studies.
Implications for Dissemination Efforts
The literature suggests important lessons for efforts to accelerate the dissemination of AT/HM among family caregivers of older adults living at home.
Many studies identified caregiver or older adult resistance to using new AT/HM as a challenge. This suggests a need for efforts to increase awareness and acceptance of AT/HM.
Additionally, studies with family caregivers highlight the importance of CM and SW knowledge of AT/HM for family caregivers. Also important is ensuring that CMs have sufficient time to allocate to AT/HM services. Another suggestion is that CMs use a comprehensive, easy to use, objective tool for assessing home safety and identifying AT/HM needs. Several such tools have been developed.
The perceived cost of the AT/HM was another major barrier to device acceptance. This suggests a need for increased coverage of AT/HM in health care programs, combined with outreach to increase awareness of existing funding sources.
Identified Research Gaps
This review also identified several research gaps that could be addressed in future studies. No studies were found that directly measured outcomes on family caregiver physical strain, and few studies involved home care workers. Additional research is needed to assess long-term impacts of various types of devices on different aspects of physical strain among family and paid caregivers in the home setting and their cost impacts. Also needed is additional research on how to overcome barriers to more widespread adoption of equipment and safe handling practices that have been found to be effective. Attributes of the device, such as ease, comfort of use, time required to use the device, and intrusiveness, were major factors associated with receptivity to AT/HM. Thus, further research is needed to develop technologies designed for use by older adults and their caregivers in the home.