To enhance understanding of AT/HM interventions that could benefit family caregivers, we included published and unpublished research on:
Technologies and programs designed to reduce physical strain/injuries among caregiving staff in institutions/residential facilities (nursing facilities, hospitals, assisted living facilities). Compared with the scant literature on family caregiver physical strain, more research activity has focused on technologies to reduce injuries among paid caregivers, with most of the focus on caregiving staff in nursing facilities and hospitals. Workers in nursing and residential care facilities experienced the highest injury rates of any occupational setting in 2010, according to data recently released by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (PHI National, 2011). This literature is relevant to family caregivers, because although paid caregivers and family caregivers have different circumstances, they provide many of the same types of support and have many of the same physical needs (DSW Resource Center, 2011).
Technologies and injury prevention programs designed to reduce physical strain/injuries among the home care workforce.
AT/HM services designed to promote independence of older adults with disabilities living at home. While the focus of this study is on reducing physical strain for caregivers, any device that increases the level of independence for the care recipient is likely to simultaneously decrease the amount of assistance needed and thereby indirectly relieve burden for care providers (Mann, 2001).
Programs providing AT/HM services with a direct focus on family caregivers.
To identify relevant published and unpublished studies, we combined a search of the academic literature in PubMed/MEDLINE with a targeted Internet search of websites with information about technology and long-term care. These websites included the National Rehabilitation Information Center literature database (http://www.naric.com/research/rehab/default.cfm), http://www.techforltc.org, http://www.hcbs.org, http://www.colemaninstitute.org, http://www.abledata.com, http://www.gerontechnology.info, and http://www.caregiver.org. Additional studies surfaced through other sources, including examination of reference lists of studies included in the literature review, conference proceedings, and discussions with members of the study's TEP and CAP.
To address the study objectives, the PubMed search combined statements for five concepts: (1) caregivers/care settings, (2) physical strain, (3) AT, (4) HM, and (5) physical strain prevention efforts (Table A-1). A preliminary search led to many studies touching on the topic of AT and caregiver physical strain, including many laboratory tests of devices. The scope of the review was then refined to exclude laboratory studies and focus on studies examining the use of AT/HM in real-world settings. The review was limited to English language articles involving adult participants, excluding articles about caregivers of children with disabilities because they would likely need different types of technologies. We included studies with any type of design that addressed the research questions.
The final search strategy was executed in PubMed/MEDLINE on October 14, 2010, and resulted in a total of 431 "hits." An updated search was carried out approximately one year later, on October 6, 2011, to identify new studies published during the past year, which yielded an additional 15 hits, for a total of 446 articles.
A data abstraction table (Appendix A) was used to enter detailed information on included studies, including bibliographic information; details on the population, setting, and intervention examined (types of AT/HM, funding); findings (economic impacts, impacts on caregiver injury/strain, other outcomes for caregivers and care recipients, and lessons learned); and recommendations provided by study authors, based on full-text review of the studies. To assess the strength of the evidence, we also extracted details on each study's design, sample, methods, and limitations. Two researchers reviewed each entry.