The 1996 National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients: A Comparison of Faith-Based and Secular Non-Profit Programs. Appendix A: Types of Programs Included in NSHAPC

03/19/2002

NSHAPC covered 16 different types of homeless assistance programs, defined as follows:

  1. Emergency shelter programs provide short-term housing on a first-come first-served basis where people must leave in the morning and have no guaranteed bed for the next night OR provide beds for a specified period of time, regardless of whether or not people leave the building.  Facilities which provide temporary shelter during extremely cold weather (such as churches) and emergency shelters or host homes for runaway or neglected children and youth, and victims of domestic violence were also included.
  2. Transitional housing programs have a maximum stay for clients of two years and offer support services to promote self-sufficiency and to help them obtain permanent housing. They may target any homeless sub-population such as persons with mental illnesses, persons with AIDS, runaway youths, victims of domestic violence, homeless veterans, etc.
  3. Permanent housing programs for homeless people provide long-term housing assistance with support services for which homelessness is a primary requirement for program eligibility.  Examples include the Shelter Plus Care Program, the Section 8 Moderate Rehabilitation Program for Single-Room Occupancy (SRO) Dwellings, and the Permanent Housing for the Handicapped Homeless Program administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).  These programs also include specific set-asides  of assisted housing units or housing vouchers for homeless persons by public housing agencies or others as a matter of policy, or in connection with a specific program (e.g., the HUD-VA Supported Housing Program, "HUD-VASH").  A permanent housing program for homeless people does NOT include public housing, Section 8, or federal, state, or local housing assistance programs for low-income persons that do not include a specific set-aside for homeless persons, or for which homelessness is not a basic eligibility requirement.
  4. Voucher distribution programs provide homeless persons with a voucher, certificate, or coupon that can be redeemed to pay for a specific amount of time in a hotel, motel, or other similar facility.
  5. Programs that accept vouchers for temporary accommodation provide homeless persons with accommodation, usually in a hotel, motel, board and care, or other for-profit facility, in exchange for a voucher, certificate, or coupon offered by a homeless assistance program.
  6. Food pantry programs are programs which distribute uncooked food in boxes or bags directly to low income people, including homeless people.
  7. Soup kitchen programs include soup kitchens, food lines, and programs distributing prepared breakfasts, lunches, or dinners.  These programs may be organized as food service lines, bag or box lunches, or tables where people are seated, then served by program personnel.  These programs may or may not have a place to sit and eat the meal.
  8. Mobile food programs are programs which visit designated street locations for the primary purpose of providing food to homeless people.
  9. Physical health care programs provide health care to homeless persons, including health screenings, immunizations, treatment for acute health problems, and other services that address physical health issues.  Services are often provided in shelters, soup kitchens, or other programs frequented by homeless people.
  10. Mental health care programs provide services for homeless persons to improve their  mental or psychological health or their ability to function well on a day-to-day basis.  Specific services may include case management, assertive community treatment, intervention or hospitalization during a moment of crisis, counseling, psychotherapy, psychiatric services, and psychiatric medication monitoring.
  11. Alcohol/drug programs provide services to assist a homeless individual to reduce his/her level of alcohol or other drug addiction, or to prevent substance abuse among homeless persons.  This may include services such as detoxification services, sobering facilities, rehabilitation programs, counseling, treatment, and prevention and education services.
  12. HIV/AIDS programs provide services for homeless persons where the services provided specifically respond to the fact that clients have HIV/AIDS, or are at risk of getting HIV/AIDS.  Services may include health assessment, adult day care, nutritional services, medications, intensive medical care when required, health, mental health, and substance abuse services, referral to other benefits and services, and HIV/AIDS prevention and education services.
  13. Drop-in center programs provide daytime services primarily for homeless persons such as television, laundry facilities, showers, support groups, and service referrals, but do not provide overnight accommodations.
  14. Outreach programs contact homeless persons in settings such as on the streets, in subways, under bridges, and in parks to offer food, blankets, or other necessities; to assess needs and attempt to engage them in services; to offer medical, mental health, and/or substance abuse services; and/or to offer other assistance on a regular basis (at least once a week) for the purpose of improving their health, mental health, or social functioning, or increasing their  use of human services and resources.  Services may be provided during the day or at night.
  15. Migrant housing is housing that is seasonally occupied by migrating farm workers.  During off-season periods it may be vacant and available for use by homeless persons.
  16. Other programs: providers could describe other programs they offered, as long as the programs met the basic NSHAPC definition of a homeless assistance program.  Types of programs actually identified through the survey include housing/financial assistance (e.g., from Community Action, county welfare, or housing agencies); Emergency Food and Shelter Program agencies; job training for the homeless, clothing distribution, and other programs.

 

Appendix Table A1:
Number of NSHAPC Programs by Type of Agency Operating Programs
  Total Number of Programs Faith-Based Non-Profit Secular Non-Profit Government For-Profit Unidentified
All Program Types 39,664 12,599 18,751 5,324 243 2,747
  Housing 15,879 3,783 8,664 1,924 120 1,388
    Emergency Shelter 5,687 1,520 3,480 320 11 356
    Transitional Shelter 4,395 1,181 2,535 433 62 184
    Permanent Housing 1,918 205 980 534 17 181
    Distribute Vouchers 3,080 743 1,361 523 10 443
    Housing For Vouchers 799 134 307 114 20 224
  Food 13,003 6,907 4,858 645 50 542
    Soup Kitchen/Meal Distribution 3,484 2,131 1,057 95 3 197
    Food Pantry 9,028 4,628 3,560 548 42 249
    Mobile Food 491 148 241 1 5 96
  Health 2,739 131 1,034 1,241 17 317
    Physical Health Care 715 42 215 420 0 38
    Mental Health 801 9 250 519 4 18
    Alcohol or Drug 778 61 363 183 5 165
    HIV/AIDS 446 18 206 119 7 96
  Other 8,043 1,778 4,195 1,515 56 499
    Outreach 3,307 505 1,922 579 19 281
    Drop-In Center 1,790 450 1,083 129 5 123
    Financial/Housing Assist. 1,378 277 452 625 1 24
    Other 1,568 546 738 182 31 71
Source:  Urban Institute analysis of NSHAPC program data.  Data represent "an average day in February 1996."

 

Appendix Table A1a:
Number of NSHAPC Programs by Urban/Rural Status
  Total Number of Programs Faith-Based Non-Profit Secular Non-Profit Government For-Profit Unidentified
All Program Types 39,664 12,599 18,751 5,324 243 2,747
Central Cities
All 19,388 7,143 8,902 1,915 133 1,294
Housing 7,894 2,263 4,244 759 62 565
Food 6,018 3,815 1,704 157 10 331
Health 1,379 104 783 402 10 80
Other 4,097 961 2,170 598 50 317
Suburbs
All 7,694 2,702 3,696 571 82 642
Housing 3,230 781 1,731 281 58 380
Food 3,020 1,601 1,208 80 12 119
Health 251 7 128 80 6 29
Other 1,192 312 630 131 5 114
Rural Areas
All 12,583 2,754 6,153 2,838 28 811
Housing 4,754 738 2,689 884 0 443
Food 3,965 1,491 1,946 408 28 92
Health 1,110 20 123 759 0 208
Other 2,754 505 1,395 787 0 68
Source:  Urban Institute analysis of NSHAPC program data.  Data represent "an average day in February 1996."

 

Appendix Table A1b:
Number of NSHAPC Programs by Region of the Country
  Total Number of Programs Faith-Based Non-Profit Secular Non-Profit Government For-Profit Unidentified
All Program Types 39,664 12,599 18,751 5,324 243 2,747
Northeast
All 7,097 2,032 3,807 718 40 500
Housing 2,870 472 1,759 369 17 254
Food 2,401 1,275 893 85 11 137
Health 306 20 211 43 2 29
Other 1,521 265 944 220 10 81
South
All 11,101 4,333 4,516 1,515 53 686
Housing 4,309 1,293 2,166 446 49 356
Food 4,113 2,391 1,326 252 1 142
Health 863 40 232 492 1 97
Other 1,817 608 791 325 2 91
Midwest
All 11,853 3,741 5,184 1,915 57 956
Housing 4,678 1,146 2,229 790 17 496
Food 3,945 2,155 1,352 266 31 142
Health 736 20 292 261 0 162
Other 2,494 419 1,311 598 9 157
West
All 9,333 2,404 5,097 1,162 92 580
Housing 3,892 825 2,447 312 38 270
Food 2,478 1,050 1,264 41 6 117
Health 816 49 283 439 14 30
Other 2,147 480 1,101 369 34 163
Source:  Urban Institute analysis of NSHAPC program data.  Data represent "an average day in February 1996."