This ASPE Research Brief presents analyses of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health describing the characteristics, health and well-being of children who live with neither of their biological parents. The analysis compares children living with neither of their biological parents to children living with one or two biological parents. Findings include that nearly two-thirds of children who do not live with their biological parents live with grandparents; children in nonparental care experience high levels of adverse family experiences; and on most child well-being measures children living with two parents fared better than those living with one parent who in turn fared better than children living with no parents. The analysis is a prelude to the National Survey of Children in Nonparental Care (NSCNC) which will include more detailed information on children who live apart from their parents. A companion analysis providing more detail on the adverse family experiences of children in nonparental care is being issued concurrently by the National Center for Health Statistics.