Incarceration and the Family:
A Review of Research and Promising Approaches for Serving Fathers and Families
Accordino, M. P., & Guerney, B. (1998). An evaluation of the relationship enhancement program with prisoners and their wives. Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 42(1), 5-15.
Adalist-Estrin, A. (1994). Family support and criminal justice. In S. L. Kagan & B. Weissbound (Eds.), Putting families first: Americas family support movement and the challenge of change (pp. 161-185). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Amato, P. R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social and emotional well-being of the next generation, Future Child, 15(2), 75-96.
Arditti, J. A. (2005). Families and incarceration: An ecological approach. Families in Society: Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 86(2), 251-260.
Arditti, J. A., Lambert-Shute, J., & Joest, K. (2003). Saturday morning at the jail: Implications of incarceration for families and children. Family Relations, 52, 195-204.
Babcock, J. C., & La Taillade, J. J. (2000). Evaluating interventions for men who batter. In J. P. Vincent & E. N. Jouriles (Eds.), Domestic violence: Guidelines for research-informed practice (pp. 3777). Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Babcock, J. C., Waltz, J., Jacobson, N. S., & Gottman, J. M. (1993). Power and violence: The relation between communication patterns, power discrepancies, and domestic violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 40-50.
Baer, D., Bhati, A., Brooks, L., Castro, J., La Vigne, N., Mallik-Kane, K., Naser, R., et al. (2005). Understanding the challenges of prisoner reentry: Research findings from the Urban Institutes prisoner reentry portfolio. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Bahr, S. J., Armstrong, A. H., Gibbs, B. G., Harris, P. E., & Fisher, J. K. (2005). The reentry process: How parolees adjust to release from prison. Fathering, 3, 243-265.
Bauer, B., Hart, J., Hopewell, A., & Tein, N. (2007). Research and practice symposium on marriage and incarceration: A meeting summary. Health Systems Research, Inc.
Baunach, P. J. (1985). Mothers in prison. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, Inc.
Bayse, D. J., Allgood, S. M., & Van Wyk, P. H. (1991). Family life education: An effective tool for prisoner rehabilitation. Family Relations, 40(3), 254-257.
Bernard, S., & Knitzer, J. (1999). Map and track: State initiatives to encourage responsible fatherhood. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University Mailman Center School of Public Health. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from http://www.nccp.org/publications/pdf/text_439.pdf.
Bobbitt, M., & Nelson, M. (2004). The front line: Building programs that recognize families role in reentry. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.vera.org/publication_pdf/249_476.pdf.
Bowling, G. (1999). The MELD for young dads program. Family and Corrections Network Report, 20, 10-11.
Braman, D., & Wood, J. (2003). From one generation to the next: How criminal sanctions are reshaping family life in urban America. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed (pp. 157-188). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.
Brenner, E. (1999). Fathers in prison: A review of the data. Family and Corrections Network Report, 20, 3-7.
Bronte-Tinkew, J., Carrano, J., Allen, T., Bowie, L., Mbawa, K., & Matthews, G. (2007). Elements of promising practice for fatherhood programs: Evidence-based research findings on programs for fathers. Retrieved June 9, 2008, from http://basis.caliber.com/cwig/ws/library/docs/fatherhd/Blob/62423.pdf?rpp=-10&upp=0&m=1&w=NATIVE%28%27TI+ph+is+%27%27Elements+of+Promising+Practice+for+Fatherhood+Programs+%3A+Evidence-Based+Research+Findings+on+Programs+for+Fathers%27%27%27%29&r=1&order=native%28%27year%2FDescend%27%29
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (2000). Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved June 29, 2006, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/cfjs00.htm.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (2008). Jail Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/jails.htm.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (2008). Prison Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm.
Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) (2008). Probation and Parole Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved August 25, 2008, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pandp.htm.
Butzin, C. A., Martin, S. S., & Inciardi, J. A. (2002). Evaluating component effects of a prison-based treatment continuum. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 22, 63-69.
Carlson, B. E., & Cervera, N. (1992). Inmates and their wives: Incarceration and family life. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Clayton, O., & Moore, J. (2003). The effects of crime and imprisonment on family formation. In O. Clayton, R. B. Mincy, and D. Blankenhorn (Eds.), Black Fathers in Contemporary American Society: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Strategies for Change. Russell Sage Foundation: New York.
Coatsworth, J. D., Duncan, L. G., Pantin, H., & Szapocznik, J. (2006). Patterns of retention in a preventive intervention with ethnic minority families. Journal of Primary Prevention, 27(2), 171193.
Conway, T., & Hutson, R.Q. (2007). Parental incarceration: How to avoid a death sentence for families. Journal of Law and Public Policy Clearinghouse Review, 41(3-4), 214-221.
Coombs, R. H. (1991). Marital status and personal well-being: A literature review. Family Relations, 40, 97-102.
Cornille, T. A., Barlow, L. O., & Cleveland, A. D. (2005). DADS family project: An experiential group approach to support fathers in their relationships with their children. Social Work with Groups, 28, 41-57.
Day, R., Acock, A., Bahr, S., & Arditti, J. (2005). Incarcerated fathers returning home to children and families: Introduction to the special issue and a primer on doing research with men in prison. Fathering, 3 (3), 183-200.
Department of Labor (2007). About PRI. Retrieved September 3, 2008, from http://www.doleta.gov/pri/aboutPRI.cfm.
Doherty, W. J., & Anderson, J. R. (2004). Community marriage initiatives. Family Relations, 53(5), 425-432.
Dunn, E., & Arbuckle, J. G. (2002). Children of incarcerated parents and enhanced visitation programs: Impacts of the Living Interactive Family Education (LIFE) Program. University of Missouri Extension. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://extension.missouri.edu/crp/lifeevaluation/LIFEreport.doc.
Eddy, B. A., Powell, M. J., Szubka, M. H., McCool, M. L., & Kuntz, S. (2001). Challenges in research with incarcerated parents and importance in violence prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20, 56-62.
Eddy, J. M., & Reid, J. B. (2003). The adolescent children of incarcerated parents: A developmental perspective. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed (pp. 233-258). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.
Edin, K. (2000). Few good men: Why poor mothers dont marry or remarry. The American Prospect, 11, 26-31.
Edin, K., Nelson, T. J., & Paranal, R. (2001). Fatherhood and incarceration as potential turning points in the criminal careers of unskilled men. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved September 3, 2008 from http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/publications/papers/2001/fatherhood.pdf.
Fals-Stewart, W., Birchler, G. R., & Kelley, M. L. (2006). Learning sobriety together: A randomized clinical trial examining behavioral couples therapy with alcoholic female patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 579-591.
Fals-Stewart, W., Birchler, G. R., & OFarrell, T. J. (1996). Behavioral couples therapy for male substance-abusing patients: Effects on relationship adjustment and drug-using behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 959-972.
Fals-Stewart, W., Kelley, M. L., Fincham, F. D., Golden, J., & Logsdon, T. (2004). Emotional and behavioral problems of children living with drug-abusing fathers: Comparisons of children living with alcohol-abusing and non-substance-abusing fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 19330.
Fals-Stewart, W., OFarrell, T. J., Feehan, M., Birchler, G. R., Tiller, S., & McFarlin, S. K. (2000). Behavioral couples therapy versus individual-based treatment for male substance-abusing patients: An evaluation of significant individual change and comparison of improvement rates. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 18(3), 249-254.
Family Strengthening Policy Center (2005). Policy brief no. 12. November.
Festen, M., Waul, M., Solomon, A., & Travis, J. (2002). From prison to home: The effect of incarceration and reentry on children, families and communities. Conference report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Fishman, L. T. (1990). Women at the wall: A study of prisoners wives doing time on the outside. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Furstenberg, F. F. (1995). Fathering in the inner city: Paternal participation and public policy. In W. Marsiglio (Ed.), Fatherhood: Contemporary theory, research and public policy (pp. 119-147). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gibson-Davis, C. M., Edin, K., & McLanahan, S. (2005). High hopes but even higher expectations: The retreat from marriage among low-income couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 1301-1312.
Glaze, L. E., & Maruschak, L. M. (2008). Parents in prison and their minor children. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. New York: The Commonwealth Fund.
Griswold, E., & Pearson, J. (2003). Twelve reasons for collaboration between departments of correction and child-support enforcement agencies. Corrections Today, 65, 87-95.
Hagan, J., & Dinovitzer, R. (1999). Collateral consequences of imprisonment for children, communities, and prisoners. Crime and Justice, 26, 121-162.
Hairston, C. F. (1988). Family ties during imprisonment: Do they influence future criminal activity? Federal Probation, 52(1), 48-52.
Hairston, C. F. (1998). The forgotten parent: Understanding the forces that influence incarcerated fathers relationships with their children. Child Welfare, 77, 617-639.
Hairston, C. F. (2001). Fathers in prison: Responsible fatherhood and responsible public policies. Marriage and Family Review, 32, 111-126.
Hairston, C. F. (2008). Focus on children with incarcerated parents: An overview of the research literature. Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Hairston, C. F., & Lockett, P. W. (1987). Parents in prison: New directions for social services. Social Work, 32, 162-164.
Hairston, C. F., & Oliver, W. (2006). Safe return: Domestic violence and prisoner reentry: Experiences of Black women and men. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved October 19, 2007 from http://www.vera.org/publications/publications_5.asp?publication_id=367.
Hairston, C. F., Rollin, J., & Jo, H. (2004). Family connections during imprisonment and prisoners community reentry. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago. Retrieved October 19, 2007, from http://www.uic.edu/jaddams/college/familyconnections.pdf.
Haney, C. (2001). The psychological impact of incarceration: Implications for post-prison adjustment. Santa Cruz, CA: University of California. Retrieved from http://aspe.hhs.gov/search/hsp/prison2home02/Haney.htm.
Harrison, K. (1997). Parental training for incarcerated fathers: Effects on attitudes, self-esteem, and children's self-perception. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(5), 588-593.
Healey, K., Smith, C., & OSullivan, C. (1998). Batterer intervention: Program approaches and criminal justice strategies. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/168638.pdf
Holt, N., & Miller, D. (1972). Explorations in inmate-family relationships. Family and Corrections Network Report, 46.
Howser, J., & MacDonald, D. (1982). Maintaining family ties. Corrections Today, 44, 96-98.
Huebner, B. M. (2005). The effect of incarceration on marriage and work over the life course. Justice Quarterly, 22(3), 282-303.
Huebner, B. M. (2007). Racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of marriage: The effect of incarceration. Justice Quarterly, 24(1), 156-183.
Hughes, M. (1998). Turning points in the lives of young inner-city men forgoing destructive criminal behaviors: A qualitative study. Social Work Research, 22, 143-151.
Hughes, M. J., & Harrison-Thompson, J. (2002). Prison parenting programs: A national survey. The Social Policy Journal, 1, 57-74.
Jeffries, J. M., Menghraj, S., & Hairston, C. F. (2001). Serving incarcerated and ex-offender fathers and their families: A review of the field. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.vera.org/publication_pdf/fathers.PDF.
Jewkes, R. (2002). Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention. The Lancet, 359, 1423-1429.
Johnson, E. (2006). Youth with incarcerated parents: An introduction to the issues. The Prevention Researcher, 13(2), 1-6.
Johnson, E., & Waldfogel, J. (2002). Children of incarcerated parents: Cumulative risks and childrens living arrangements. Joint Center for Policy Research Working Paper. New York: Columbia University. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED468566&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED468566.
Johnson, M. (1995). Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 283-294.
Johnston, D. (1991). Jailed mothers. Pasadena, CA: Pacific Oaks Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents.
Johnston, D. (2006). The wrong road: Efforts to understand the effects of parental crime and incarceration. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 703-720.
Johnston, D. (1995). Effects of parental incarceration. In K. Gabel & D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents (pp. 59-88). New York: Lexington Books.
Jorgensen, J. D., Hernandez, S. H., & Warren, R. C. (1986). Addressing the social needs of families of prisoners: A tool for inmate rehabilitation. Federal Probation, 50, 47-52.
Jose-Kampfner, C. (1995). Post-traumatic stress reactions of children of imprisoned mothers. In K. Gabel and D. Johnston (Eds.), Children of incarcerated parents (pp. 89-100). New York: Lexington Books.
Kaslow, F. W. (1987). Couples or family therapy for prisoners and their significant others. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 15, 352-360.
Kelley, M. L., & Fals-Stewart, W. (2002). Couples- versus individual-based therapy for alcohol and drug abuse: Effects on childrens psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 417-427.
Kinner, S. A., Alati, R., Najman, J. M., & Williams, G. M. (2007). Do paternal arrest and imprisonment lead to child behavior problems and substance use? A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(11), 1148-1156.
Knight K., Simpson D. D., & Hiller, M. L. (1999). Three-year reincarceration outcomes for in-prison therapeutic community treatment in Texas. Prison Journal, 79. 337351.
Landreth, G. L., & Lobaugh, A. F. (1998). Filial therapy with incarcerated fathers: Effects on parental acceptance of child, parental stress, and child adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76, 157-165.
Lanier, C. S. (1991). Dimensions of father-child interaction in a New York State prison population. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 16(3/4), 27-42.
Lanier, C. S. (1993). Affective states of fathers in prison. Justice Quarterly, 10, 49-66.
LaRosa, J. J., & Rank, M. G. (2001). Parenting education and incarcerated fathers. Journal of Family Social Work, 6, 15-33.
Larson, J. H. (2004). Innovations in marriage education: Introduction and challenges. Family Relations, 53, 421-424.
Laub, J. H., Nagin, D. S., & Sampson, R. J. 1998. Trajectories of change in criminal offending: Good marriages and the desistance process. American Sociological Review, 63, 225-238.
La Vigne, N. G., Lawrence, S., Kachnowski, V., Naser, R., & Schaffer, M. (2002). Process evaluation of the Pennsylvania Community Orientation and Reintegration (COR) program. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=311023
La Vigne, N. G., Thomson, G. L., Visher, C., Kachnowski, V., & Travis, J. (2003). A portrait of prisoner reentry in Ohio. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=410891
Lawrence, S., Mears, D. P., Dubin, G., & Travis, J. (2002). The practice and promise of prison programming. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=410493
LeClair, D. P. & Guarino-Ghezzi, S. (1991). Does incapacitation guarantee public safety? Lessons from the Massachusetts furlough and prerelease programs. Justice Quarterly, 8(1), 936.
Levingston, K.D. & Turetsky, V. (2007). Debtors prison: Prisoners accumulation of debt as a barrier to reentry. Journal of Law and Public Policy Clearinghouse Review, 41(3-4), 187-197.
LIS, Inc. (2002). Services for families of prison inmates. Longmont, CO: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections. Retrieved October 2007, from http://www.nicic.org/pubs/2002/017272.pdf.
Lurigio, A. (2001). Effective services for parolees with mental illness. Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 446-461.
Magaletta, P. R., & Herbst, D. P. (2001). Fathering from prison: Common struggles and successful solutions. Psychotherapy, 38, 88-96.
Malm, K., Murray, J., & Geen, R. (2006). What About the Dads? Child welfare agencies efforts to identify, locate and involve nonresident fathers. Washington, D.C.: The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. Retrieved August 26, 2008, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/06/CW-involve-dads/index.htm.
Markman, H. J., Eason, J. A., & Grant, R. (2005). Doing time: PREP inside and out. Paper presented at the Smart Marriages Conference.
Martin S. S., Butzin C. A., Saum, C. A., & Inciardi, J. A. (1999). Three-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment for drug-involved offenders in Delaware: From prison to work release to aftercare. Prison Journal, 79, 294320.
McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and children development. American Psychologist, 53(2), 185-204.
Meek, R. (2007). Parenting education for young fathers in prison. Child and Family Social Work, 12, 239-247.
Mosley, J., & Thomas, E. (1995). Fathering behavior and child outcomes: The role of race and poverty. In W. Marsiglio (Ed.), Fatherhood: Contemporary theory, research, and social policy (pp. 148-165). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Mumola, C. (1999). Substance abuse and treatment, State and Federal prisoner, 1997. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Mumola, C. (2000). Incarcerated parents and their children. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Mumola, C. (2006). Presentation for the NIDA Research Meeting Children of Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Children at Risk.
Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Parental imprisonment: Effects on boys antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life-course. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(12), 1269-1278.
Murray, J., & Farrington, D. P. (2006). Evidence-based programs for children of prisoners. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 721-735.
Murray, J., Janson, C. G., & Farrington, D. P. (2007). Crime in adult offspring of prisoners. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(1), 133-149.
Naser, R., & Farrell, J. (2004). Family. In C. Visher, N. G. LaVigne, & J. Travis (Eds.), Returning home: Understanding the challenges of prisoner reentry, Maryland pilot study: Findings from Baltimore(pp. 103-125). Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=410974.
Nelson, M., Deess, P., & Allen, C. (1999). The first month out: Post-incarceration experiences in New York City. New York: Vera Institute.
Nord, C. W., Brimhall, D., & West, J. (1997). Fathers involvement in schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Nurse, A. M. (2002). Fatherhood arrested: Parenting from within the Juvenile Justice System. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Nurse, A. M. (2004). Returning to strangers: Newly paroled young fathers and their children. In M. Pattillo, D. Weiman, & B. Western (Eds.), Imprisoning America: The social effects of mass incarceration (pp. 76-96). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), (2006), Incarceration, Reentry and Child Support Issues: National and State Research Overview. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cse/pubs/2006/reports/incarceration_report.pdf
Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE), (2006), Working with Incarcerated and Released Parents: Lessons from OCSE grants and State Programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cse/pubs/2006/guides/working_with_incarcerated_resource_guide.pdf
OFarrell, T. J., Murphy, C. M., Stephan, S. H., Fals-Stewart, W., & Murphy, M. (2004). Partner violence before and after couples-based alcoholism treatment for male alcoholic patients: The role of treatment involvement and abstinence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(2), 202-217.
Osborne, C., & McLanahan, S. (2007). Partnership instability and child well-being. Working Papers 946. Princeton University Center for Research on Child Wellbeing.
Page, M. & Stevens, A. H. (2004). The economic consequence of absent parents. Journal of Human Resources, 39(1), 80-107.
Palm, G. (2001). Parent education for incarcerated fathers. In J. Fagan & A. J. Hawkins (Eds.), Clinical and educational interventions with fathers (pp. 117-141). New York: The Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Parke, M. (2003). Are married parents really better for children? What research says about the effects of family structure on child well-being. Couples and Marriage Series, No. 3. Washington, DC: Center for Law and Social Policy.
Parke, R. D., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2001). Effects of parental incarceration on young children. Prepared for the From Prison to Home: The Effect of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families and Communities Conference (January 30-31, 2002). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Urban Institute.
Parke, R. D., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2003). The effects of parental incarceration on children: Perspectives, promises and policies. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed (pp. 189-232). Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.
Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, R. H., Kramer, T. L., Robbins, J. M. (2002). Parental incarceration among adolescents receiving mental health services. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(4), 385-399.
Phillips, S. D., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G. P., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2006). Disentangling the risks: Parent criminal justice involvement and childrens exposure to family risks. Criminology and Public Policy, 5(4), 677-702.
Poehlmann, J. (2005). Incarcerated mothers contact with children, perceived family relationships, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(3), 350-357.
Robbers, Monica L.P. (2005). Focus on Family and Fatherhood: Lessons from Fairfax Countys Responsible Fatherhood Program for Incarcerated Dads. Justice Policy Journal Vol. 2 No 1.
Rossman, S. (2001). Services integration: Strengthening offenders and families, while promoting community health and safety. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/prison2home02/Rossman.htm.
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1990). Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. American Sociological Review, 55, 609-627.
Sampson, R. J., Laub, J. H., & Wimer, C. (2006). Does marriage reduce crime? A counterfactual approach to within-individual casual effects. Criminology, 44(3), 465-508.
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918-924.
Schmitzer, C. (1999). Making families whole. Family and Corrections Network Report, 20, 12-13.
Seeman, T. E. (1996). Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration. Annals of Epidemiology, 6, 442-551.
Seiter, R. P., & Kadela, K. R. (2003). Prisoner reentry: What works, what does not, and what is promising. Crime and Delinquency, 49.
Shapiro, C. (1999). Integrating family-focused interventions into the Criminal Justice System. New York: Vera Institute of Justice. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.vera.org/publication_pdf/bodega_family.pdf.
Schoenborn, C. (2004). Marital status and health: United States, 1999-2002. Advance Data from Vital Statistics. No. 351. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad351.pdf
Showalter, D. & Jones, C. W. (1980). Marital and family counseling in prisons. Social Work, 25, 224-228.
Skarupski, K. A., Bullock, C. J., Fitch, C., Johnson, A. L., Kelso, L. M., Fox, E. R., et al. (2003). Outcomes evaluation of the Long Distance Dads© Program. Report to the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved November 12, 2007, from http://www.pccd.state.pa.us/pccd/lib/pccd/stats/ldd_outcomes_final_report.pdf
Stanton, A. (1980). When mothers go to jail. New York: Lexington Books.
Steurer, S. J., & Smith, L. G. (2003). Education reduces crime: Three-state recidivism study: Executive summary. Correctional Education Association and Management and Training Corporation Institute. Retrieved from http://www.ceanational.org/documents/3StateFinal.pdf.
Sullivan, E., Mino, M., Nelson, K., & Pope, J. (2002). Families as a resource in recovery from drug abuse: An evaluation of La Bodega de la Familia. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
Tilley, D. S., & Brackley, M. (2005). Men who batter intimate partners: A grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26, 281-297.
Travis, J., McBride, E. C., & Solomon, A. L. (2003). Families left behind: The hidden costs of incarceration and reentry. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center.
Travis, J., McBride, E. C., & Solomon, A. L. (2005). Families left behind: The hidden costs of incarceration and reentry. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310882.
Travis, J., Solomon, A., & Waul, M. (2001). From prison to home: The dimensions and consequences of prisoner reentry. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Visher, C. A., Knight, C. R., Chalfin, A., Roman, J. K. (forthcoming). The impact of marital and relationship status on social outcomes for returning prisoners. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Visher, C. A., & Courtney, S. M. E. (2007). One year out: Experiences of prisoners returning to Cleveland. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=311445.
Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2003). Transitions from prison to community: Understanding individual pathways. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 89-113.
Visher, C. A., Baer, D., & Naser, R. (2006). Ohio prisoners reflections on returning home. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Western, B. (2004). Incarceration, marriage, and family life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Department of Sociology.
Western, B., & Beckett, K. (1999). How unregulated is the U.S. labor market? The penal system as a labor market institution. The American Journal of Sociology, 104 (4), 1030-1060.
Western, B., Lopoo, L., & McLanahan, S. (2004). Incarceration and the bonds between parents in fragile families. In M. Patillo, D. Weiman, and B. Western (Eds.), Imprisoning American: The social effects of mass incarceration (pp. 21-45). New York: Russell Sage Press.
Western, B., & McLanahan, S. (2000). Fathers behind bars: The impact of incarceration on family formation. Families, Crime and Criminal Justice, 2, 309-324.
Whelan, R. (1993). Broken homes and battered children: A study of the relationship between child abuse and family type. London: Family Education Trust.