This section presents findings on characteristics of jobs held by respondents who were currently employed or who had been employed in the last year. Although a majority (about six in ten) of respondents had worked in the past year, only ha lf of these had worked full-time (Figure III-4).
Many of the currently and recently employed responden
The federal 1996 PRWORA legislation created the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program to replace AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children). This “welfare reform” legislation introduced major new provis ions affecting welfare families. Among these new provisions were time limits on the receipt of welfare, mandatory work req
Since enactment of the 1996 welfare reform law, researchers have conducted numerous studies of families who have left welfare in order to assess their employment status and overall well-being. In contrast, relatively little research has been conducted on families currently on welfare to learn about their characteristics and barriers to self-su
1 If the Affordable Care Act increases the number of consumers who seek health coverage in local social services offices that also take applications for capped human services programs, the latter may need to devise approaches to prioritizing benefit receipt within a larger applicant pool. On the other hand, the ACA may shift some current Medicai
Acs, Gregory, Pamela Loprest, and Tracy Roberts. 2001. Final Synthesis Report of Findings from ASPE “Leavers” Grants. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Bloom, Dan, Mary Farrell, and Barbara Fink. 2002. Welfare Time Limits: State Policies, Implementation, and Effects on Families. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corpora
Not surprisingly, people who stay on welfare persistently are different from people who leave. As discussed earlier, stayers are more likely than leavers to face a range of potential barriers to work. In this sense, long-term stayers are the most disadvantaged segment of the caseload at a point in time. One question that has arisen in the wake of
The most direct way to assess how the caseload decline has affected families is to track the economic status of welfare leavers. This task has been the focus of a substantial amount of research over the past several years (Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2001; Cancian, Haveman, Meyer, and Wolfe, 2000; Brauner and Lop
For the analysis in this report, the samples in each program are restricted to people for whom data were available for at least 36 months but no more than 60 months after they were randomly assigned into a program. The evaluations have varying lengths of follow-up, and this restriction is imposed so that “staying on welfare” and “leaving wel
The data used in this report come from several programs that have been evaluated by MDRC. Each of the programs was evaluated using a random assignment design, in which ongoing recipients or new applicants to welfare were assigned to either an experimental group that received the new treatment or a control group that was subject to the existing wel
One of the first steps in understanding how leavers are faring and how the caseload has changed is figuring out why the caseload declined so dramatically since the early 1990s. Did most families leave because they found jobs in the expanding economy, or did they leave because of welfare reform? Caseload declines that are driven by the economy sh
Between 1994 and 1999, the welfare caseload fell by almost 50 percent. In other words, about two million fewer families were receiving welfare in 1999 than five years earlier. To some observers, this trend is evidence that welfare reform has been a success. To others, it raises a host of new questions and concerns and suggests that the 1996 law
Long-term welfare leavers face fewer barriers to employment than long-term stayers and generally fare better economically. People who cycle on and off the welfare rolls look more similar to leavers than to stayers.
Between 1994 and 1999, the welfare caseload fell by almost 50 percent. In other words, about two million fewer families were receiving welfare in 1999 than five years earlier. To some observers, this trend is evidence that welfare reform has been a success. To others, it raises a host of new questions and concerns and suggests that the 1996 law wa
Acronyms and Glossary
1915(c) waivers refers to section 1915(c) of the Medicaid program allowing the Secretary of HHS to waive certain program requirements in the law. Waivers permit States greater flexibility to target program eligibility and provide home and community based services for the disabled and/or elderly population
This project examined low-income child care after welfare reform, studying the low-income child care market in 25 communities in 17 States with a sub-study examining the family child care market in 5 neighborhoods drawn from these communities. A survey was conducted of 2,500 low-income families in the same 25 communities to determine how child ca
Elements of evaluation:
Effective programs achieve results. Results derive from good management which requires good decisions. Good decision-making depends on good information. Good information requires good data and careful analysis. Creative project officers, skillful researchers, thoughtful and receptive leaders contribute to value-added e
This analysis of indicators of welfare dependence for the tenth annual report to Congress examined the extent to which Americans were dependent on social welfare programs. The analysis identified welfare dependence indicators through 2004, reflecting changes that had taken place since enactment of major welfare reform legislation in 1996, the Pers