Educational disparities have direct and immediate consequences in the labor market, and these disparities tend to be exacerbated during a recession. But for men of color, the employment gap—whether measured by unemployment rates or employment-to-population ratios7—remains large in good times and in bad. The unemployment rate among African Amer
Higher educational attainment can be a ticket out of poverty and a pathway to steady lifetime employment. For many low-income men, however, educational experiences are a stumbling block to higher achievement, both academic and professional. These men are less likely to have completed high school or to have pursued postsecondary education.
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. High poverty metropolitan ZCTAs are most likely to be majority black or Hispanic.
Areas of poverty concentration tend to be very racially segregated with over three- quarters of residents in areas with majority minority populations belonging to the racial group that makes up the largest share of the population. Just over 46 percent of concentrated metropolitan poor areas are majority black; 32 percent are majority Hispanic, and
Not all four sites chosen for in-depth study have currently met their enrollment targets (Table III.1). PHB’s S4H project was fully enrolled early on, aided by the Cascade AIDS Project’s (CAP) preexisting waiting list for other housing resources. In contrast, the other IHHP sites identified some challenges reaching and enrolling their clients.
A substantial share of Medicaid beneficiaries - about one in thirteen or 2.4 million people - were noncitizen immigrants, in a typical month in 1994. Because the welfare reform legislation does not affect the eligibility of most of those who were present in the U.S. in August 1996, very few of the immigrants now on Medicaid are affected. However,
The loss of Medicaid coverage does not leave immigrants completely unprotected; they remain eligible for emergency medical services under Medicaid. (3) To understand more about emergency benefits, we examined data about the undocumented aliens who were eligible only for emergency coverage. After standardizing for differences in caseload compositi
The Number and Cost of Immigrants on Medicaid: National and State Estimates. Medicaid Expenditures for Immigrants
Are Medicaid expenditures for immigrants different than for citizens? We address this issue in two parts, first looking at expenditures for legally admitted immigrants, who have been eligible for the full range of Medicaid benefits, then for undocumented aliens, who were eligible only for emergency services.
The distribution of immigrants varies widely across the states. California had the most noncitizens, about one quarter (25 percent) of its caseload. Indeed, the 1.3 million immigrants on Medicaid in that state were more than half of the national total of Medicaid immigrants. Table ES-3
The impact of PRWORA will grow over time as the number of post-enactment immigrants accumulates. The QC data for 1994 are useful if we assume that the distribution of immigrant categories in post-enactment years mirrors that in 1994 and that most states adopt policies close to the basic federal guidelines. With this assumption, about 5 percent of
The Number and Cost of Immigrants on Medicaid: National and State Estimates. National Participation Estimates
Overall national estimates of the number of noncitizen immigrants on Medicaid, based on the combination of QC and SSA data, are presented in Table ES-1. About 2.4 million of the 32 million Medicaid enrollees in an average month in 1994 were noncitizens (including undocumented aliens with emergency coverage only). This is 7.5 percent of the total c
The analyses are based on the Medicaid Quality Control (QC) data base for the first half of 1994, with additional information about Supplemental Security Income (SSI) participants from the Social Security Administration (SSA). The QC data base includes verified data about 93,000 sampled Medicaid enrollees, roughly 2,000 per state, making it the la
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) made major changes in the eligibility of legally admitted immigrants for health insurance under the Medicaid program. In the past, immigrants were eligible for the full range of Medicaid benefits, like citizens. (1) In contrast, undocumented (illegal) aliens were
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2009-2013. Supplemental Security Income
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program is a means-tested, federally administered income assistance program authorized by title XVI of the Social Security Act. Established in 1972 (Public Law 92-603) and begun in 1974, SSI provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to needy aged, blind and
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly the Food Stamp Program) 7 is administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service. SNAP is the largest food assistance program in the country, reaching more poor individuals over the course of a year than any other public assistance program. Unlike
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2009-2013. INDICATOR 4. Rates of Participation in Means-Tested Assistance Programs
1 Unlike the SNAP and SSI programs, TANF is a block grant program for which there is no individual entitlement. One of the main goals of TANF is to move people from cash assistance to self-sufficiency.
Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program), administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Food and Nutrition Service, is the largest food assistance program in the country, reaching more poor individuals over the course of a year than any other public assistance program. Unlike many other
Welfare Indicators and Risk Factors: Thirteenth Report to Congress. INDICATOR 4. Rates of Participation in Means-Tested Assistance Programs
Figure IND 4. Participation Rates in the AFDC/TANF1, SNAP and SSI Programs: Selected Years (In percent)
CHIPRA Mandated Evaluation of the Children's Health Insurance Program: Final Findings. How CHIP Works
Like Medicaid, CHIP is jointly financed by states and the federal government, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) administers both programs for the federal government.
Emerging Child Welfare Practice Regarding Immigrant Children in Foster Care: Collaborations with Foreign Consulates. Table 1. Provisions of Memoranda of Understanding Between Child Welfare Agencies and Consulates
TABLE 1. PROVISIONS OF MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN CHILD WELFARE AGENCIES AND CONSULATES Illinois Iowa Nebraska New Mexico Missouri* Washington* Los Angeles County, CA Monterey County, CA Riverside County, CA San Diego County, CA Sacramento County, CA