The following tables and figures present data on caseloads, expenditures, and recipient characteristics of the AFDC and TANF programs. Trends in national caseloads and expenditures are shown in Figures TANF 1 and TANF 2, and the first set of tables (Tables TANF 1 through 6). These are followed by information on characteristics of AFDC/TANF fam
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the specific summary measure of welfare dependence proposed by a bipartisan Advisory Board 1 and how this measure was adopted for use in this annual report series. Also it discusses summary measures of poverty, following the Advisory Board’s recommendation that dependence measures not be assesse
Alperstein, G., Rappaport, C., & Flanigan, J.M. (1987). Health problems of homeless children in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1232-1233. Barrow, S. M. & Laborde, N. D. (2008). Invisible mothers: Parenting by homeless women separated from their children. Gender Issues, 25 , 157–172. Barrow, S. M., & Lawi
This section describes five categories of open questions and issues for discussion at the roundtable meeting.
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. IV-A. Access to health and mental health care
Access to health insurance is an important step in securing health care for homeless children. Medicaid is the primary source of health insurance for homeless children (National Center on Family Homelessness, 2009 p.43). Medicaid is health insurance for children and adults who meet the financial and general eligibility requirements. Eligibility de
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Section IV. Targeted and Mainstream Programs
This section reviews targeted and mainstream programs for homeless children. The major source of targeted funding specifically for homeless children is the McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program, which was renewed in No Child Left Behind legislation.
Researchers often attempt to single out the unique effects of particular stressors on various aspects of children’s well-being. However, there exist many different types of negative events that children living in poverty can experience, making it difficult to examine their effects individually. Moreover, the conditions just described often co-oc
According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture survey (Nord, 2009), 15.8 percent of households with children were food insecure at some time during 2007. In many of those households, parents were able to protect children from food insecurity, but in 8.3 percent of these households, children too were food insecure, typically due to reductions in the
Interventions for homeless families include subsidized housing, permanent supportive housing, and transitional housing. There are very few studies on any of the interventions, and those that exist are primarily descriptive. Few studies are rigorously designed, most lack comparison groups, and most lack data on children.
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Children separated from homeless families
One frequent consequence of homelessness among families is separation of children from their parents. In a national survey, 60 percent of homeless women and 41 percent of homeless men had at least one minor child, but only 39 percent of women and 3 percent of men lived with any children (Burt et al., 1999). Some separations occur in shelter system
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Improvements in children’s outcomes over time
Problems of children living in homeless shelters may diminish over time. Buckner, Bassuk, Weinreb, and Brooks (1999) found in a cross-sectional analysis that children’s psychiatric symptoms peaked after about four months in shelter; thereafter, children seemed to adapt to the shelter environment. One to two years after living in shelter, the ini
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Demographic characteristics
As noted above, according to AHAR, just over half (51 percent) of homeless children in emergency shelters and transitional housing were under 6 years of age in 2008, 34 percent were 6 to 12, while only 15 percent were 13 to 17. Slightly over half (51 percent) were Black or African American; 24 percent were White, non-Hispanic or Latino; 13 percent
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Section II. Research About Homeless Children
Beginning with the earliest published reports in 1987, the literature on homeless children now spans about 23 years. Viewing these studies in the aggregate, a set of “first generation” studies, many of which were reviewed 15 years ago by Rafferty and Shinn (1991), can be distinguished from a second stage of investigations published after the r
Evidence is surfacing that the current economic and foreclosure crisis has led to an increase in the number of homeless children. We know from prior research that family homelessness is more sensitive to economic cycles than individual homelessness (Culhane et al., 2003).
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. I-D. The changing economic context of homelessness for children
This section describes the rise of homelessness generally and in families with children specifically. Contextual factors include changes in poverty, fluctuations in the availability of low-income housing, and the recent recession and foreclosure crisis.
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Children in families meeting the HUD definition of homelessness
HUD’s most recent counts of homeless children are summarized in the 2008 Annual Homeless Assessment Report (AHAR) released July 2009, which includes a count of children residing in HUD-funded shelters and transitional housing. The report includes information about point-in-time counts as well as an annual count reflecting the 12-month period O
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. I-B. Definitions of homeless families
Definitions of homelessness pertaining to families differ, depending upon whether HUD’s or the Department of Education (ED) McKinney-Vento criteria are being used. The HUD definition of homelessness (below) is used to determine qualification for participation in HUD programs. It does not include individuals living doubled-up or in hotels/mot
This paper provides an update on the research, policy, laws, and funding for programs and services for children who are homeless in the United States. Education, health, and mental health for homeless children are examined. “Homeless children” here refers to minor children accompanying their parent(s)/guardian(s) during a homeless episode. Una
This section reviews the results of several research studies.
Based on the analysis of the national program data and CDC surveillance data, as many as 10 percent of the identified PLWHA in the United States and its territories are receiving some sort of housing assistance through RWP and/or HOPWA. Although there is no systematic way of assessing the extent of housing need among everyone with HIV/AIDS, it is