A uniform "Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects," often called the "Federal Common Rule," is promulgated by sixteen Federal agencies that conduct, support, or regulate research. It governs such matters as subject rights, informed consent, Institutional Review Boards, disclosure policy, recordkeeping, and a variety of other matters.
For many purposes researchers must keep the ability to trace back, even if through intermediaries, to the data-subjects. Irreversible anonymization is not necessarily desirable. There are a number of important reasons why retaining personal identifiability—either openly labelled or via key-coding—may be essential:
A prime example of innovation is the elaborate work of developing and improving the use of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, diagnostic instruments and tests, vaccines, and other "tools" of health care. 53 After much preliminary screening, an experimental entity or procedure is subjected to a long series of clinical trials , perhaps on tens of
Much research is performed to evaluate public-health programs, clinical practices, and the effects of innovations. 50
Whether or not they are to be considered "research," a classic category of investigations have to do with coping with disease outbreaks and epidemics, and with other emerging or emergency threats.
So many kinds of health data are collected that it would be distracting and soporific to do more here than take note of the major categories. But it is essential to recognize: (a) that great research power resides in a diversity of health data, and (b) that privacy issues surround many kinds of data beyond those in primary medical records. Healt
HHS Strategic Goals and Objectives - FY 2001 . Objective 5.2 - Improve the Safety of Food, Drugs, Medical Devices, and Biological Products
How We Will Accomplish Our Objective We will access state-of-the-art science necessary for timely and credible regulatory decisions by: recruiting top scientists. engaging in continuous training of the professional work force.
In addition to behavior, access, and quality, the vitality of the public health system in the United States is essential to ensuring and improving the health of Americans. Therefore, Goal 5 is concerned with making sure the infrastructure of the public health system is sound.
HHS Strategic Goals and Objectives - FY 2001 . Objective 1.3 - Improve the Diet and the Level of Physical Activity of Americans
How We Will Accomplish Our Objective We will carry out education campaigns to encourage the public to improve their diet and exercise habits. Our focus will be on: conducting our Five-A-Day education program on the importance of eating vegetables and fruits.
AHCA. State Summaries of Nursing Facilities, 2001. www.ahca.org/research/keynotes/statefactsheets-2001.pdf. Time Magazine. Fatal Neglect: In possible thousands of cases, nursing home residents are dying from a lack of food and water and the most basic level of hygiene. October 27, 1997. U.S. General Accounting Office. California Nurs
Long-Term and Post-Acute Care Providers Engaged in Health Information Exchange: Final Report. Appendix L. Standards Available to SUPPORT Health Information Exchange of Long-term and Post-acute CARE Data
TABLE L-1. Standards Available to Support HIE of LTPAC Data
3.7.1 Facility Measures
Improving the Coordination of Services for Adults with Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders: Profiles of Four State Medicaid Initiatives. Appendix A. Illinois State Profile
This state profile also available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/pdf-report/improving-coordination-services-adults-mental-health-and-substance-use-disorders-illinois-state-profile A. Program Description Overview
Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Costs Relative to Benefits: What is the government's financial return on its investment in welfare-to-work programs?
The programs' five-year benefits were also calculated in NEWWS. Benefits included the increases in earnings and decreases in welfare and food stamp payments discussed earlier, as well as dollar valuations of the programs' estimated effects on Medicaid, job fringe benefits, taxes paid, and the costs of administering transfer programs such as food s
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. Theoretical Developments
Haber and Toro (2004) provide a thorough review of various theories that have been applied in recent research on homeless children and youth. The theories most relevant to homeless youth include variants based on social learning theory (Bandura, 1977; Patterson, 1982).
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. Homelessness Among Former Foster Youth
Many homeless youth report a history of out-of-home care placement. The percentage who report being placed in foster care or an institutional setting varies across studies, but estimates range between 21 and 53 percent (Cauce et al., 1998; Robertson, 1989, 1991; Toro & Goldstein, 2000). A similar pattern has been observed among homeless adults
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. Risky Behaviors and Victimization
A number of studies have found not only that many homeless youth are sexually active, but also that they engage in sexual behaviors that put them at high risk for both sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy (Cauce et al., 1994; Kipke et al., 1995; Lombardo & Toro, 2004; Rotheram-Borus, 1991; Rotheram-Borus et al., 1992a, 1992b; Staller &a
Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Income: How can welfare-to-work programs increase family resources?
The administrators of all the welfare-to-work programs studied in NEWWS hoped that their programs' preemployment services, mandates, and messages would enable welfare recipients eventually to increase their income and move out of poverty, but their relative emphasis on and methods of achieving this goal differed. The education-focused programs emp