1 American Council of Life Insurance, Life Insurance Fact Book, (New York: American Council of Life Insurance, 1976), p. 9. 2 Health Insurance Institute, The Source Book of Health Insurance Data 1974 - 1975, (New York: Health Insurance Institute, 1975), p. 19. 3 American Council of Life Insurance, op. cit., p. 38. 4 Automobile I
1 For a discussion of the fair hearing procedures, see Chapter 11. 2 Bank Secrecy Act, 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 1953; 12 C.F.R. §103.36. 3 California Bankers Association v. Schultz, 416 U.S. 21 (1975). 4 State ex rel. Tarver v. Smith 78 Wash. 2d 152, 470 P.2d 172, cert. denied, 402 U.S. 1001 (1971); United States v. Miller, 425 U.S. 435
The strongest argument for the need to keep attention focused on the issue of personal privacy in record keeping is in the facts of record keeping themselves. The facts and the specific recommendations the Commission makes on the basis of its analysis of them are presented in the chapters that follow.
The Commission had three basic alternatives for giving effect to its policy recommendations: (1) voluntary compliance; (2) statutory creation of rights, interests, or responsibilities enforceable through either individual or governmental action; and (3) establishment of ongoing governmental mechanisms to investigate, study, and report on privacy p
The Commission's findings clearly reveal an overwhelming imbalance in the record keeping relationship between an individual and an organization, and its policy recommendations aim at strengthening the ability of the individual to participate in that relationship.
The fourth competing interest the Commission identified is cost. In maximizing fairness, this is the most compelling competing interest. Whether an organization is public or private, to make changes in record keeping practices can increase its cost of operation and thus make the product or service it provides either more expensive or less accessib
The second competing societal value the Commission identified is freedom of information. In enacting the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) in 1966, 13 and strengthening it eight years later, the Congress gave expression to society's strong interest in opening the records of Federal government agencies to public inspection.
Every member of a modern society acts out the major events and transitions of his life with organizations as attentive partners. Each of his countless transactions with them leaves its mark in the records they maintain about him. The uniqueness of this record-generating pressure cannot be overemphasized. Never before the Twentieth Century have org
One need only glance at the dramatic changes in our country during the last hundred years to understand why the relationship between organizational record keeping and personal privacy has become an issue in almost all modern societies. The records of a hundred years ago tell little about the average American, except when he died, perhaps when and
Issues of public policy rarely, if ever, emerge on the political scene fully developed and fully articulated. Rather, they result from gradual changes in the social and economic environment, which are then identified and intensively debated. This has been the pattern with the subject of this report. The relationships between individuals and variou
Persons With Mental Retardation and Related Conditions in Mental Retardation Facilities: Selected Findings from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Findings
The limitations noted above notwithstanding, the NMES Institutional Population Component, including these initial data, as well as the service utilization, costs, resident movement and other data yet to be released, is an important data base for understanding the characteristics, needs and services of persons with mental retardation and related co
Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information. Final Privacy Rule Preamble.. The Federal Response
There have been numerous federal initiatives aimed at protecting the privacy of especially sensitive personal information over the past several years -- and several decades. While the rules below are likely the largest single federal initiative to protect privacy, they are by no means alone in the field. Rather, the rules arrive in the context of
1. Inclusion of statutory rape in reporting requirements The Massachusetts General Laws require mandated reporters to report all instances where they have reasonable cause to suspect that a child is a victim of abuse, including sexual abuse. The reporting requirements do not include any provisions that indicates that it applies only to parents
1. Inclusion of statutory rape in reporting requirements Mandatory reporters are required to notify the proper authorities if they suspect that a child has been the victim of abuse.  The statute defines child abuse to include the offenses listed in the previous section. However, the definition only applies to those cases where the defend
Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Appendix: NEWWS Program Summaries
Appendix Table. Summary of NEWWS Program Activities, Environments, and Results Program Activities Sample and Site Characteristics Five-Year Net Cost per Program Group Member ($) Year Control Group Impact SOURCES: Hamilton et al., 2001; Michalopoulos and Schwartz, 2001.
Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Costs Relative to Benefits: What is the government's financial return on its investment in welfare-to-work programs?
The programs' five-year benefits were also calculated in NEWWS. Benefits included the increases in earnings and decreases in welfare and food stamp payments discussed earlier, as well as dollar valuations of the programs' estimated effects on Medicaid, job fringe benefits, taxes paid, and the costs of administering transfer programs such as food s
Moving People from Welfare to Work. Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.. Costs: What contributes to the cost of welfare-to-work programs?
Different types of five-year costs were estimated for the NEWWS programs. The gross cost per program group member is a comprehensive measure of all the costs associated with providing employment services and related support services to people while they were enrolled in a welfare-to-work program as well as after they left the program and/or the
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. References
Acosta, O., & Toro, P. A. (2000). Let's ask the homeless people themselves: A needs assessment based on a probability sample of adults. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28 , 343-366. Ahmed, S., & Toro, P. A. (2004). Religiosity and ethnicity as moderators of substance abuse in at-risk adolescents. Unpublished manuscript, Dep
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. Prevention Research
In addition to research on how to best address the needs of youth who are already homeless, other studies have focused on preventive interventions.
Toward Understanding Homelessness: The 2007 National Symposium on Homelessness Research. Homeless Youth in the United States: Recent Research Findings and Intervention Approaches. Intervention Research
Much progress has been made in providing services to homeless youth and families since 1987 when the Stuart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Public Law 100-77) was signed into law. There now exist a vast array of shelters and other emergency services to address the diverse needs of homeless individuals and families, including homeless youth (T