Alperstein, G., Rappaport, C., & Flanigan, J.M. (1987). Health problems of homeless children in New York City. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1232-1233. Barrow, S. M. & Laborde, N. D. (2008). Invisible mothers: Parenting by homeless women separated from their children. Gender Issues, 25 , 157–172. Barrow, S. M., & Lawi
According to a U.S. Department of Agriculture survey (Nord, 2009), 15.8 percent of households with children were food insecure at some time during 2007. In many of those households, parents were able to protect children from food insecurity, but in 8.3 percent of these households, children too were food insecure, typically due to reductions in the
Interventions for homeless families include subsidized housing, permanent supportive housing, and transitional housing. There are very few studies on any of the interventions, and those that exist are primarily descriptive. Few studies are rigorously designed, most lack comparison groups, and most lack data on children.
Homeless Children: Update on Research, Policy, Programs, and Opportunities. Children separated from homeless families
One frequent consequence of homelessness among families is separation of children from their parents. In a national survey, 60 percent of homeless women and 41 percent of homeless men had at least one minor child, but only 39 percent of women and 3 percent of men lived with any children (Burt et al., 1999). Some separations occur in shelter system
Overview of Community Characteristics in Areas With Concentrated Poverty. The characteristics of communities with concentrated poverty vary across demographic and spatial dimensions.
Research associates several factors with higher concentrations of poverty: economic change from the production of goods to information processing; migration patterns of the non-poor; racial and economic segregation; discriminatory and segregating housing policies; increasing immigration; the rise in births to unwed mothers; and the decline in mult
Belsky, J., Burchinal, M., McCartney, K., Lowe Vandell, D., & Clarke-Stewart, K.A., Tresch Owen, M. (2007, March/April). “Are There Long-Term Effects of Early Child Care?” Child Development , Volume 78, Number 2.. Besharov, D. & Higney, C. (2006). Federal and State Child Care Expenditures (1997-2004): Rapid Growth Followed by Stead
Although the research described in the previous section provides valuable insights into the non-parental child care arrangements of rural children, there is a need for additional analysis. One reason for additional analyses is that two of the most thorough national data collection efforts focusing on child care were conducted over 15 years ago:
This section reviews the results of several research studies.
Non-Federal Participants Ben Allen National Head Start Association Alexandria, VA Jean Beil Catholic Charities USA Alexandria, VA Kelly Bovio Horizons for Homeless Children Roxbury, MA Diana Bowman National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE Greensboro, NC John Buckner Children's Hospital Boston Harvard Medical School Bos
Performance Improvement 2003. Economic Analysis of the Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation Program
This study examined cost savings to government resulting from an investment in a program of prenatal and early childhood home visitation that has been studied in three randomized controlled experiments. Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Food Stamps and Medicaid administrative data, survey data, and cost data were analyzed. Findings include:
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. References
Acevedo-Polakovich, I., B. Bell, P. Gamache, and A.S. Christian. “Service Accessibility for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth.” Youth & Society, vol. 45, 2011, pp. 75–97. American Psychological Association. “Guidelines for Practice with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients.” Washington, DC: APA, 2011.
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. B. Issues for Policymakers and Practitioners to Consider
The case study findings point to four issues related to serving LGBTQ RHY for policymakers and practitioners to consider: (1) ensuring consistency and accuracy in collecting data on clients’ sexual orientation and gender identity, (2) providing guidance on management and analysis of these data, (3) providing technical assistance to agencies whos
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. A. Data Gaps and Research Needs
We asked staff in case study agencies to identify the kinds of information and research that might help them understand the characteristics and experiences of LGBTQ RHY more completely and provide effective services to this population.
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. A. Addressing LGBTQ Identity in Assessments
Agency staff conduct assessments during initial intake sessions and subsequent meetings with youth. These assessments focus on triaging to determine immediate needs, detailing personal circumstances, and identifying risk factors or barriers that may need to be addressed through longer-term services.
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. C. Challenges and Considerations in Data Collection and Interpretation
Agencies’ experiences collecting information on sexual orientation and gender identity of youth highlight factors that may affect data completeness and accuracy. They also suggest issues for policymakers and other stakeholders to consider when interpreting sexual orientation and gender identity data on RHY.
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. A. The RHY Program and Other Federal Responses to Youth Homelessness
Because homeless youth can be involved in many public systems (such as child welfare, juvenile justice, and homeless assistance), many policies and programs can affect them. With respect to shelter, housing, and outreach services for RHY, key elements of the federal policy and program context include the RHY Program structure, U.S. Department of H
Identifying and Serving LGBTQ Youth: Case Studies of Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grantees. Research Needs
We asked staff in case study agencies to identify the kinds of information and research that might help them understand the characteristics and experiences of LGBTQ RHY more completely and provide effective services to this population. Staff recommended future research in six general areas:
Figures 1 and 2 describe the flow that we are comparing between Michigan and Illinois for the period 1990 through 1994. All first contacts refer to the number of children that came in contact with the child welfare system for the first time in this time period - in Illinois, nearly half a million and in Michigan slightly over a quarter million chi