The adult outcomes have four domains with a total of 10 measures. The health domain includes two measures: alcohol abuse or dependence around age 30; drug use (marijuana or cocaine) in the past month around age 30.
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. B. Does Adolescent Family Structure Affect the Pathways of Early Initiators?
In this section we examine family structure as a measure of family environment. Other literature has examined how family structure may influence the choices made by these youths. However, as before, we take as given the point at which youths initiate into a risky behavior. We frame the question of interest around early initiators. Specifically, do
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. 3. The Relationship of Adolescent Family Structure to Adult Outcomes
In the previous section we found that engaging in adolescent risky behaviors generally is associated with diminished adult outcomes; the earlier the initiation, the worse the outcome. In this section we examine the role played by adolescent family structure in the relationship to the adult outcomes. As noted in Chapter II , much of the research
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Chapter IV: The Relationship Between Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment
Most existing literature on adolescent risky behaviors concentrates on explaining the causes and correlates of the behaviors. A subset of the literature explores the relationship between the behaviors and long-term outcomes. Before we examine the relationship between engaging in adolescent risky behavior and subsequent adult outcomes, we show the
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. C. Adult Consequences of Adolescent Risky Behaviors
Although a large number of studies examining consequences of adolescent risky behavior look at these consequences in adolescence, some research has focused on adult outcomes. The relevant research is presented below according to the type of risky adolescent behavior investigated. Delinquency
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. B. Adolescent Consequences of Risky Behaviors
Most literature on adolescent consequences of risky behaviors focuses on risky behaviors as outcomes, with some studies examining other outcomes such as educational attainment and employment. Risky behaviors beget other risky behaviors. The fact that adolescent risky behaviors often co-occur makes engaging in any one risky behavior a risk factor f
There is a fairly consistent pattern that engaging in risky behaviors as a teenager is associated with less successful adult outcomes. In most cases, the earlier one engages in the behavior, the more likely one faces a bad outcome as an adult. The most consistent predictor of a bad adult outcome is age of initiation into sexual activity. Alcohol u
The Feasibility of Using Electronic Health Data for Research on Small Populations. Technical Conditions Required for Research Using EHR and Other Electronic Health Data
In order to use information in EHRs for research, it is first necessary for a number of technical conditions to be in place, such as the ability to extract and format data for research, as well as to address issues with missing data and data quality. As with claims data, the information in EHRs was not collected for research purposes.
The Feasibility of Using Electronic Health Data for Research on Small Populations. Data issues regarding rural health
Rural areas are covered in federal surveys by the U.S.
A fundamental challenge facing small communities is the high cost per capita of providing health services. 176 Investments to make services available in sparsely populated areas produce services for fewer people than do similar investments made in more populated areas.
Rural communities are generally older populations and have higher rates of chronic conditions. 155 People in rural counties are more likely than their urban counterparts to face food insecurity (i.e., reports of problems regarding quality, variety, or desirability of diet or eating patterns) 156 which is associated with risks of diabetes and obe
The Feasibility of Using Electronic Health Data for Research on Small Populations. Transition to adulthood
Most research on ASDs focuses on the identification, assessment, and treatment of children. Few studies examine their transition into the adult world. 128 The health care transition between adolescence and adulthood requires planning in order to maximize lifelong functioning and well-being. This process would ideally include ensuring uninterrupte
The Feasibility of Using Electronic Health Data for Research on Small Populations. Factors affecting the health care of and research on the LGBT population
Stigma—the “inferior status, negative regard, and relative powerless that society collectively assigns to individuals and groups that are associated with various conditions, statuses, and attributes” —was identified by the IOM as a major factor that affects access to or use of medical care by LGBT people.  Unfortunately, stigma and it
As noted in Chapter I, this 2001 report uses data from the Annual March Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to construct updated measures of some of the indicators that were based on data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) in prior year reports. Specifically, the overall summary indicator of depe
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2001 . Employment and Work-related Risk Factor 6. Adult Alcohol and Substance Abuse
Figure WORK 6. Percentage of Adults Who Used Cocaine or Marijuana or Abused Alcohol, by Age: 1999 Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Household Survey on Drug Abuse.
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 2001 . Chapter III: Predictors and Risk Factors Associated with Welfare Receipt
The Welfare Indicators Act challenges the Department of Health and Human Services to identify and set forth not only indicators of welfare dependence and welfare duration, but also predictors and causes of welfare receipt. Up to this point, welfare research has not established clear and definitive causes of welfare dependence. However, researc
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1997. Appendix C. Comparison Between 1996 and 1997 Indicators and Predictors
Comparison of Interim Report Indicators and Annual Report Indicators and Risk Factors Note that the numbers in the first column are the indicators numbers used in the Interim Report . Interim # Interim Title New # New Title A.1
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1997. Teen Behavior Risk Factor 7. Teen Alcohol and Suns Tance Abuse
Teen alcohol and substance abuse are important examples of teen problem behavior and may increase the risk of dependence. Figure TEEN 7. Percent of Teens Age 12 to 17 who used Cocaine, Marijuana or Alcohol
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1997. Employment and Work-Related Risk Factor 5. Adult Alcohol and Substance Abuse
Adult alcohol and substance abuse is a risk factor for dependence . Figure WORK 5. Percent of Adults who used Cocaine Marijuana or Alchohol, 1996