Children under 16 years of age are unable to consent to sexual activity,  with the following exceptions: If the defendant and victim are married to one another  If the victim is at least 13 years of age and the defendant is less than 3 years older than the victim  If the victim is less than 13 years of age and the defendant i
9 Although the federal government’s jurisdiction is limited, the United States Code does include statutory rape laws. See 18 U.S.C.A. § 2241 and § 2243.
States’ laws addressing sexual activity involving minors are usually included in the section of the criminal code devoted to sexual offenses. Each state summary ( Section III ) includes a table detailing all of the offenses in the statute that deal with statutory rape.
Amato, P. R. (1999). Children of divorced parents as young adults. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Coping With Divorce, Single Parenting, and Remarriage (pp. 147-164). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Amato, P. R. (1996). Explaining the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family , 58, 628-640. Amat
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix F: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Other Independent Variables Among Early Initiators Living with Single Mothers at Age 14: Effects of Mothers' Education
Summary Table Mothers' Education By Risky Behavior
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix E: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Other Independent Variables Among Early Initiators Living With Both Biological Parents at Age 14: Effects of Parents' Education
Summary Table Note: Results from regressions with no differences by age are not shown. Parents' Education by Risky Behavior
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix D: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Other Independent Variables Among Early Initiators: Effects of Family Structure
Note: Results from regressions with no differences by age are not shown. Summary Table Family Type by Risky Behavior
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix C: New Categories of Risky Behavior Variables for Regressions of Different Adult Outcomes Among Early Initiators
Table C1: Definitions of Early Initiators for each Outcome/Behavior Pairing Adult Outcomes Age of alcohol initiation Age of marijuana initiation Age of cocaine initiation Age of sex initiation Number of crimes/delinquencies Alcohol abuse or dependence ~ 30 11-17 11-19 11-15 11-19 9 + Past-month drug use
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Appendix B: Regressions of Adult Outcomes on Adolescent Risky Behaviors, Family Environment, and Other Independent Variables
Table B1. Odds Ratios from Logistic Regressions of Adult Health and Crime Outcomes Independent Variables Adult Outcome Health Crime Alcohol Abuse or Dependence Odds Ratio [P-value] Past-month Drug Use Odds Ratio [P-value] Ever Being in Jail Odds Ratio [P-value] Number of observations
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Other Explanatory Variables
Sex: Individual respondent was assigned the value of "1" if he/she was identified as "male", otherwise the value of "0" was assigned. Race and Ethnicity : The NLSY79 distinguishes among three mutually exclusive and exhaustive race-ethnicity groups. A respondent was designated as "non-black, non-Hispanic", "black", or "Hispanic" based on a rac
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Youth Risky Behavior Variables
We explore five youth risky behaviors: alcohol usage, marijuana usage, cocaine usage, sex activity, and delinquency. The first four behaviors are measured by age of initiation. Age when started a risky behavior was asked in multiple waves of interviews. In general, the value usually taken was from the earliest year the question was asked. However,
The adult outcomes have four domains with a total of 10 measures. The health domain includes two measures: alcohol abuse or dependence around age 30; drug use (marijuana or cocaine) in the past month around age 30.
Nearly 14 percent of adults suffer from alcohol abuse or dependence as measured around the age of 30 while about 11 percent are using drugs at that age. The prevalence rate of past-year alcohol use disorder is comparable to that (14 percent) found by Harford and Grant (1994) using 1989 NLSY79 data. Both past-year alcohol use disorder and recent dr
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. Chapter IV: The Relationship Between Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment
Most existing literature on adolescent risky behaviors concentrates on explaining the causes and correlates of the behaviors. A subset of the literature explores the relationship between the behaviors and long-term outcomes. Before we examine the relationship between engaging in adolescent risky behavior and subsequent adult outcomes, we show the
The NLSY79 offers a wide array of outcomes we can study. We define ten adult outcomes of interest and categorize them into four major domains. The outcome domains and the measures in each domain are: Health
ast research has emphasized the important role that family-related variables play in the prediction of various adolescent risky behaviors (e.g., Hawkins, et al., 1992; Kandel, 1996). It also seems likely that the impact of adolescent risk factors on adult outcomes is influenced, for the better or worse, by the adolescent's family unit. Family stru
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. C. Adult Consequences of Adolescent Risky Behaviors
Although a large number of studies examining consequences of adolescent risky behavior look at these consequences in adolescence, some research has focused on adult outcomes. The relevant research is presented below according to the type of risky adolescent behavior investigated. Delinquency
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment. A. Predicting Adolescent Risky Behaviors
Much of the research examining adolescent risky behaviors is centered on the factors that predict or co-vary with their occurrence. Risk factors are those variables that increase the likelihood that a certain negative outcome, in this case, risky adolescent behavior, will occur. Protective factors buffer the influence of risk factors on outcomes.
Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress, 1997. Appendix C. Comparison Between 1996 and 1997 Indicators and Predictors
Comparison of Interim Report Indicators and Annual Report Indicators and Risk Factors Note that the numbers in the first column are the indicators numbers used in the Interim Report . Interim # Interim Title New # New Title A.1