Figure BIRTH 1. Percentage of Births that are Nonmarital by Age: 1940-2006
Note: Trends in non-marital births may be affected by changes in the reporting of marital status on birth certificates and in procedures for inferring non-marital births when marital status is not reported.
The final group of risk factors addresses nonmarital childbearing. The tables and figures in this subsection are labeled with the BIRTH prefix. This category includes long-term time trends in nonmarital births (BIRTH 1), nonmarital teen births (BIRTH 2 and BIRTH 3), and children living in families with never-married parents (BIRTH 4). Children
Traditionally, kinship care has been separated into two categories. Informal kinship care refers to caregiving arrangements that occur without the involvement of a child welfare agency, whereas formal kinship care refers to arrangements in which kin act as foster parents for children in State custody.
Traditionally, when child welfare agencies found it necessary to remove children from their parents’ homes due to abuse or neglect, they placed them in the homes of foster parents who had no prior relationship to the children or the children's family. Over the last decade, however, these agencies have increasingly relied on kin—that is, person
The extended family has long played a role in caring for children whose parents were unable to do so—a practice commonly referred to as kinship care. Over the last decade, child welfare agencies have increasingly relied on extended family members to act as foster parents for children who have been abused or neglected, yet very little information
Figure IND 1a. Percentage of Total Income from Means-Tested Assistance Programs: 2005
Note: Means-tested assistance includes TANF, SSI, and food stamps. Total >50% includes all persons with more than 50 percent of their total annual family income from these means-tested programs. Income includes cash income and the value of food st
This introductory chapter provides an overview of the specific summary measure of welfare dependence proposed by a bipartisan Advisory Board 1 and how this measure was adopted for use in this annual report series. Also it discusses summary measures of poverty, following the Advisory Board’s recommendation that dependence measures not be assesse
The Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 directed the Secretary of HHS to develop this report to Congress. This report was prepared with the input of the Advisory Panel on Kinship Care which met in October 1998 and January 1999. The report has two parts. Part I reviews the academic and related research literature on kinship care, including what
The period from 1995 to 2011 was marked by much change in the ECE sector, both in the types of care arrangements that families used and in rates of participation in various ECE settings by subgroups of children and families. Two overall trends observed were the increases in the use of public preschool among three- and four-year olds, and the use
Like child age, participation in ECE also varied by family income, and the disparity between low- and higher-income children’s enrollment remained relatively stable over this time period. In 2005, children under age five in low-income families (below 200 percent of the FPL) were 18 percentage points less likely to be in any child care arrangem
Much of the recent growth in the use of center care occurred among infants and toddlers under age three. As shown in Figure 4, there was a seven percentage point increase (from 12 to 19 percent) in the percent of infants and toddlers in centers between 1995 and 2005. The largest increase in center care occurred among two-year-olds (10 percenta