Table 9. Covariates in NICHD SECCYD

GenderDummy variable of child’s gender
RaceDummy variable of race (categorized as White, Black, Hispanic, or other)
Parental CharacteristicsMother’s education at the child’s birth, family income to poverty threshold (based on reported income, household size, and federal poverty threshold for that ear. Computed as the mean of the income/needs ratio from 6, 15, 24, 36, and 55 month assessments
Family StructureMarried, partner, single; Biological mother or father; Other family members in household
ParentingMaternal sensitivity (at 54 months, 1st, 3rd grade, 5th grade, and 15 years)
Home EnvironmentH.O.M.E. Total score (at 54 months, 3rd grade, 5th grade, and 15 years)
School/Teacher CharacteristicsClass size, Teacher education and certificate, Type of school Teacher total quality (at 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades); Time observed on math and language arts (at 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades)