Policy Research for Front of Package Nutrition Labeling: Environmental Scan and Literature Review. Table 5-10. FOP Effects on Producers and Retailers: Implementation, Reformulation, and Sales


Table 5-10. FOP Effects on Producers and Retailers: Implementation, Reformulation, and Sales

StudyLabelsStudy DesignSample PopulationResultsQuality Score
Young & Swinburn, 2002 New ZealandPick the Tick logo (National Heart Foundation)Evaluation of the impact of the Pick the Tick program on food reformulation. Food product reformulation records from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999, analyzed and changes in sodium levels multiplied by volume of sales and converted to salt in tons.55 food companies and 390 food products (15 breakfast cereals, 26 breads, and 12 margarines).Reformulation : 10 out of 390 food products were reformulated (4 breakfast cereals, 3 breads, and 3 margarines). Breakfast cereals had the largest reduction of sodium (average of 378 mg/100 g or 61%), followed by bread (123 mg/100 g or 26%) and margarine (53 mg/100 g or 11%). In 1 year, Pick the Tick influenced companies to eliminate 33 tons of salt through reformulation and formulation of breads, breakfast cereals, and margarine.3.5
Williams et al., 2003 AustraliaPick the Tick logo (National Heart Foundation)Analysis of Kellogg's sales volume data (1997) to learn about the effect of the Pick the Tick program on food reformulation.NAReformulation : 12 breakfast cereals reformulated (two-thirds of Kellogg's ready-to eat sales volume), reductions ranged from 85 to 479 mg sodium per 100 g (average reduction 40%).1.0
Sacks et al., 2009 UKFOP TLSales data from major UK retailer examined to assess healthiness of foods purchased after introduction of TL label. Examined two product categories' sales (ready-to-eat meals and sandwiches) 4 weeks before and after the introduction of the labeling scheme, taking into account seasonality, product promotions, and product life cycle. Six ready-to-eat meal products and 12 sandwich lines were eligible for analysis.NAEffects on sales : Overall no effect on healthiness of food purchases; Even though sales of ready-to-eat meals increased 2.4% after the introduction of the label, there was no association between the healthiness of the product and change in sales (p = 0.69). Cause of increased sales cannot necessarily be attributed to the TL label since products examined were also reformulated and the packaging and manufacturer changed. Sales of sandwiches did not change significantly.3.5
Cobiac et al., 2010 AustraliaNational Heart Foundation Tick logoEvaluated cost-effectiveness and health benefits of four salt reduction interventions including: 1) Voluntary Tick program; 2) Legislation requiring Tick; 3) Dietary advice for those at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (systolic blood pressure >115 mm Hg); 4) Dietary advice for those at high risk for cardiovascular disease (systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg).NAReformulation : The dietary advice interventions are not cost-effective strategies compared with programs to reduce sodium content in foods (both dietary interventions would avert less than 0.5% of disease burden associated with high sodium intake). The current voluntary Tick program in Australia is effective in reducing estimated sodium consumption from reductions in sodium content of foods (averting less than 1%DIsease burden) but government intervention to regulate salt content would achieve 20 times the health benefits for the Australian population (avert 18% of disease burden).1.0
Van Camp et al., 2010 UKGDA Traffic light (TL) Other FOP labels in UKGlobal New Products Database used to analyze packaged food products in the UK from 2002 to 2008; Foods were classified into groups as to whether targeted by FSA for FOP labeling or not and adoption of FOP labeling was compared between each group.NAUse : Increase in use of GDA and TL, and decline in other labels after 2005. GDA had a higher percentage of adoption in both targeted and nontargeted groups than other labels.4.0
Vyth, Steenhuis, Roodenburg et al., 2010 The NetherlandsChoices logoQuestionnaire sent to producers regarding their products which carry the Choices logo. Asked to list products with logo and corresponding food categories and to answer questions regarding product compositions and reasons products had the logo.47 food companies (includes 1 retailer and 2 caterers) who were part of the Choices program in the Netherlands. All members of the program were contacted to participate (39.5% response rate).Reformulation : Sodium significantly reduced in processed meats (p < 0.01), sandwiches (p < 0.05), soups (p < 0.01), and sandwich fillings (p < 0.05). Saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in processed meats (p < 0.05), dairy products (p < 0.05), and sandwich fillings (p < 0.01). Calories decreased significantly in dairy products (p < 0.05) and sandwich fillings (p < 0.01). Newly developed products also had healthier compositions; for example, sodium reduced in newly developed processed meats (p < 0.01) and saturated fatty acids reduced in new dairy products (p < 0.01). However, caloric values unchanged.3.5