Table 4. Defining Risk and Protective Factors.

 Risk FactorsProtective FactorsTypical Variable Selection
CommonChild maltreatment Interparental conflict Parental psycopathology Harsh, inconsistent parentingPositive parent-child relationship Effective parenting 
HealthPoor dietary habits Limited regular exercise/physical activity Lack of primary health careNutritious eating habits Regular physical activity/exercise Regular medical and dental careSmoking Eating with family
AcademicRace/ethnicity Poverty Parent dropout Large families Single parent familiesParent/child relationship Other adult relationshipRace Poverty HH size Parental status Academic scores
Illegal drug/alcohol useParental conflict Poor parent-child bonding Poor communication Poor family management practices Family substance abuseSmall family (<4) Low parental conflict Caring sibling relationships Parental attachmentFamily size Parent/child relationships Communication Drug use Alcohol use Sibling relationships Parental conflict
Externalizing behaviorFamily stress Family substance abuse Family pathologies Inconsistent behavior expectations Inconsistent parenting Low monitoring Poor family managementGood parenting skills Good family management Supportive parent/child relationship Family advocacyMonitoring Hang out Movies Parent/child relationship Adult activities? School act up?
Internalizing behaviorsFamily psychopathology Hostility Critical Parental depression Less emotional expression Disorganized PovertyParental education Employment Good health Lack of risk factorsParent education Parent/child interactions Confiding Income Depression?
Risky sexual behavior & teenage pregnancyFamily norms Poor parent/youth relationship Communication Poor parental monitoring Maternal education Degree of religious affiliation Family income Family instability Family conflict Family structure Academic performance Drug & alcohol use Sexual abuse Physical abuseIntact familyParent/youth relationship Communication Monitoring Income Family structure Academic performance Substance abuse Sexual activity