Report from the Working Group on Improving Public Policies and Programs Affecting Persons with Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities. Report from the Working Group on Improving Public Policies and Programs Affecting Persons with Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities : Table 30

12/01/1988

: Table 30

Re:Differential effects of various “community” placements
Title:Residential Placement and Adaptation of Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals
Authors:Sharon Landesman-Dwyer and Frederica MacL. Sulzbacher
Published:AAMD (Monograph #4), Deinstitutionalization and Community Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Persons.
Date:1981
Method:In 1975 and 1976, the authors conducted a statewide survey of 6,952 individuals with developmental disabilities placed in 479 group residential facilities and 1,357 individual homes. Data from an ethological study of 20 group homes and another study of 210 retarded individuals who returned to institutions after unsuccessful community placements in Washington state are also presented. Data related to demographic and diagnostic characteristics, current functional and behavioral abilities, and medical and nursing needs were collected. The population was severely and profoundly mentally retarded as defined by the AAMD Manual on Terminology and Classification, 1973.
Summary of Findings:Despite the large decline in institutionalizations and growth in community-based alternatives, most SMR/PMR individuals continue to live in large state institutions. Community residences, as a majority, tended to have a medical orientation, large size, and lack of privacy. Those SMR/PMR persons who were returned to institutions did so because of behavior problems. Those clients in the community generally tended to have a higher average of self-help, communication, and social skills and fewer medical and behavioral problems. The returnees to state institutions did not differ with regard to SMR/PMR categories, only with regard to age. Twice as many males returned than females. The majority of returnees had been placed in nursing homes which had little or no experience with residents who were mentally retarded. Two most frequently cited reasons for returning to the institution were inflicting physical harm on others and destroying objects. Indicates that community “success” for persons with severe and profound retarded is largely affected by the appropriateness of the placement and that nursing home placement is a significant predictor of reinstitutionalization.