Report from the Working Group on Improving Public Policies and Programs Affecting Persons with Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities. Report from the Working Group on Improving Public Policies and Programs Affecting Persons with Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disabilities : Table 24

12/01/1988

: Table 24

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Title:Trends in Maladaptive Behavior of Mentally Retarded Persons Placed in Community and Institutional Settings
Authors:R.K. Eyman, S.A. Borthwick, and C. Miller
Published:American Journal of Mental Deficiency
Date:1981
Method:The purpose of the study was to examine changes in maladaptive behavior of persons with mental retardation placed in community vs. institutional settings over a 3 year period, controlling for preplacement maladaptive behavior. 214 clients were placed in a state institution while 212 clients resided in various community placements. They were matched for age (ave. age = 12.4), ambulation, and degree of retardation. A shortened version of Part Two of the Adaptive Behavior Scale was given at the time of the intake and then after 2 years. Eleven items of problem behavior were selected for the analysis based on their adequacy in interrater reliability and representativeness of the subdomains that comprise Personal and Social Maladaptation subscales.
Summary of Findings:The results appear to indicate that whatever maladaptive behavior was present during the time of placement, was likely to persist, regardless of the client’s age group, level of retardation, or residence (the independent variables). Institutionalized residents displayed more maladaptive behavior than did community residents before placement and two years after placement. Within the community based group, the individuals who were profoundly retarded had the highest degrees of adaptive behavior; this group, however, was the least deviant in the institution. The individuals who were relatively higher functioning had the most maladaptive behavior. The older individuals displayed greater deviance than the younger clients. “Community facilities” in this study included everything from family care to nursing homes. To the extent (unknown) from this study that the most severely impaired individuals were in those nursing homes, it is probably difficult to differentiate between “community” and institutional treatment.