Research and Grants on Issues Relating to Children and Youth: 1986-1991

10/01/1991

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Research and Grants on Issues Relating to Children and Youth: 1986-1991

Division of Children and Youth Policy

Office of Family, Community and Long-Term Care Policy

Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

October 1991

PDF Version: http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1991/ResBook91.pdf (32 PDF pages)


This report was prepared by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Family, Community and Long-Term Care Policy (now the Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy). For additional information about this subject, you can visit the ASPE home page at http://aspe.hhs.gov.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
ORGANIZATION
I. CHILD CARE, CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND HEAD START
Completed Projects
II. CHILD ABUSE/NEGLECT, CHILD WELFARE, FOSTER CARE
Completed Projects
Projects Underway
III. ADOLESCENTS
Completed Projects
IV. SPECIAL POPULATIONS
Completed Projects
Projects Underway
V. MISCELLANEOUS
Completed Projects
Projects Underway
VI. GRANTS TO IMPROVE SERVICE INTEGRATION
Projects Underway

INTRODUCTION

This compendium is published by the Division of Children and Youth Policy within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It summarizes the results of the Division’s research projects from 1986 through the present.

The role of research within the Division is to produce information on the organization, financing, and delivery of services to children and youth, particularly among disadvantaged groups. Recent work includes studies of issues related to the children of participants in the JOBS program and to the expansion of Head Start. Special studies have focused on understanding the needs of drug exposed and HIV-positive children as well as those of homeless families with children. Among the studies currently underway are projects relating to children’s mental health services, family preservation programs, and the educational needs of drug exposed children.

In addition to research, the Division has recently also supported a series of grants to stimulate and support state and local community-based efforts to integrate health and human services for low-income families as a means of improving the access to and effectiveness of these services.

ORGANIZATION

The compendium is divided into six subject areas:

  1. Child Care, Child Development, and Head Start
  2. Child Abuse/Neglect, Child Welfare, Foster Care
  3. Adolescents
  4. Special Populations
  5. Miscellaneous
  6. Grants

Each subject is subdivided into Completed Projects and Projects Underway (if any). Within each subject area, completed projects are listed in reverse chronological order, from most recent to oldest. Projects underway are listed in chronological order by projected completion date. [NOTE: Report links were added when this compendium was made Internet-ready.]

Project descriptions include the title of the study, principal investigator, an abstract of the subject matter, the project completion date, the Policy Information Center Identification Number, and a division contact person. To obtain a copy of the final report for completed studies, the reader should contact:

Policy Information Center Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Room 438-F, Hubert H. Humphrey Building 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20201 (202) 245-6445

The division also directly distributes a limited number of final reports from selected studies. If you would like more information about a particular study now in progress, or to receive the final report once it becomes available, call or write to the contact person identified for the study. All contact people can be reached at the following address:

Division of Children and Youth PolicyOffice of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Room 404-E, Hubert H. Humphrey Building 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20201 (202) 245-1880

I. CHILD CARE, CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND HEAD START

Completed Projects

TITLE:  The Care of Low-Income Children: Sub-study of the National Child Care Survey

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Sandra Hofferth and April Brayfield, Urban Institute

SYNOPSIS:  The National Child Care Survey, coupled with the Profile of Child Care Settings, provides an array of nationally-representative information on the demand for and supply of child care in the U.S. in 1990. This sub-study provided funds to oversample low-income respondents and conduct separate analyses on child care utilization patterns, expenditures, and preferences among low-income parents.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon M. McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  October 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  To Be Determined

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TITLE:  Comments on “The Demand for and Supply of Child Care in the 1990s”

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  William Prosser and Sharon M. McGroder, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This paper critiques the hypotheses, analytic approaches and conclusions put forth in a paper written by Dr. Sandra Hofferth (of the Urban Institute) for the “National Symposium on Child Care in the 1990’s: Trends and Consequences.” Dr. Hofferth analyses the National Child Survey data and presents analyses on the degree to which there is an “unmet need” for child care; how current expenditures vary by family income and how parental expenditures have changed over the last several decades; how the “quality” of center-based and regulated family day care has changed over time (as measured by education and training of staff, group sizes, and staff-child ratios); what parents say they want when selecting child care; where “quality” of care fits in their preference set; and what barriers exist to obtaining their preferred care.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon M. McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  July 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  4161

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TITLE:  Infant Attachment Literature Review and Seminar

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Virginia Colin, consulting psychologist for Nancy Low and Associates, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  Early infant attachment lies at the heart of healthy child development and lays the foundation for relating intimately with others, including with spouses and children. For the vast majority, the experience of the mother’s care in the first experience of reality. But the demands of modern life and culture are placing new demands on parents. With these demands comes the need for clarity regarding the basic requirements of the newborn and the young infant: what is needed to nurture appropriately? Because attachment is a fundamental theme of social function, it is a central issue in social policy.

Despite the importance of infant attachment, there has been no recent, comprehensive literature review that incorporates research from the variety of disciplines, including child development, ethology, and the behavioral and psychodynamic literatures. For this reason, the Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a multidisciplinary literature review on infant attachment theory and research and conducted a seminar of experts to critique the review and propose a research agenda.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon M. McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  June 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  4121 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/inatrpt.htm

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TITLE:  Satisfaction with Child Care: Perspectives of Welfare Mothers

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Doug Wolf and Freya Sonenstein, The Urban Institute

SYNOPSIS:  Approximately 11% of the nation’s children have mothers on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). In 1988 this program was reformed to require mothers with children over the age of 2 years to participate in employment programs. Child care subsidies were guaranteed. This paper examines AFDC mothers’ perspectives on their child care in 1983-1984, a period before welfare reform, to explore the characteristics of care that mothers are likely to work. Mothers’ ratings of their care on quality, convenience, dependability, and cost showed that no particular arrangement--care by relatives, sitters, family day care or centers--was superior across all these dimensions. Each type had strengths and weaknesses. Multivariate analyses of mothers’ satisfaction revealed that convenient hours and adequate adult supervision were valued for all preschool children. Low child to adult ratios and convenient location were important for children under age 3; the child’s learning opportunities and happiness, and lower levels of caretaker experience were important for older pre-school children. The type of care used was not directly associated with satisfaction. The report concludes that a diverse range of child care options should be developed.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  May 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  4160 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ppcct.htm

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TITLE:  Head Start: What Do We Know About What Works?

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Sharon McGroder, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This technical analysis paper, written at the request of the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), summarizes and critiques the major studies and evaluations conducted over the past 25 years of Head Start and related child development programs. The paper analyzes and synthesizes research results, notes current and planned research efforts, and discusses future research needs and policy questions in the context of Head Start expansion plans.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  March 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  3908 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/headstar.htm

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TITLE:  Quality in Child Care: What It Is and How It Can Be Encouraged -- A Speech for the Family Impact Seminar

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Ann Segal, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This speech briefly describes several issues concerning the regulation of child care including: who should regulate child care, whether standards effectively improve quality, how child care has been regulated since the late 1800s, current regulation practices, and how current child care legislation addresses regulation. The author concludes that in order to improve the quality of day care environments, there should be training and technical assistance for providers, and parents must be taught how to choose a good provider and then act accordingly.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal COMPLETION DATE:  May 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  4137 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ccqual.htm

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TITLE:  The Child Care Challenge: What Parents Need and What Is Available in Three Metropolitan Areas

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report presents the findings of a survey conducted to meet the informational needs of the Teenage Parent Demonstration and to address the broader issues associated with the nature of child care markets. The Teenage Parent Demonstration, initiated in 1986, is a study designed to learn more about child care needs and available supply of care for low-income and welfare mothers. The report describes the sample design of the survey, its results concerning the supply of child care and the need for child care, and a multivariate analysis of child care mode choice and expenditures. Data for the analysis was gathered in Camden, New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey, and South Chicago, Illinois.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  February 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  2771.2

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TITLE:  Differences in Overall Spending Patterns and Spending on Child Care by Family Type: An Exploratory Study Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Data Resources/McGraw-Hill

SYNOPSIS:  This report presents the results of an exploratory study which identifies data items from the Consumer Expenditures Survey (CES) useful for the analysis of child-care spending and its impact on overall spending patterns. The authors created a data base out of selected family demographic and expenditure information contained in the CES. This report illustrates the potential uses of the data base and does not present a comprehensive analysis of child-care related spending behavior. It also evaluates the study and discusses alternative approaches for future research using the data base.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  January 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  3286

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TITLE:  An Evaluability Assessment of Child Care Options for Work-Welfare Programs

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Maximus, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  Initiated before the passage of the Family Support Act in 1988, this study was designed to (1) identify the relationship of child care practices, issues, and barriers to welfare reform and work-welfare programs in selected states, and (2) explore the linkages between Head Start programs and child care as supportive services to low-income and AFDC families.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  April 1988 PIC ID NUMBER:  2597.1 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/evalasv1.htm

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TITLE:  Synthesis of Research on Child Care Utilization Patterns

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Sharon McGroder, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This paper synthesizes findings on current and trends in child care usage patterns among employed mothers of preschoolers (less than 6 years old). It summarizes the types, duration, and expenditures on arrangements using the Current Population Surveys (1958, 1965, 1977, 1982), the National Survey of Family Growth (1982) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data (Winter 1984-1985).

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  February 1988 PIC ID NUMBER:  3328 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ccressyn.htm

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TITLE:  Child Care Used by Working Women in the AFDC Population: An Analysis of the SIPP Data Base

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Lorelei R. Brush, Analysis, Research and Training

SYNOPSIS:  This report argues that, if current behavior is indicative of future behavior, then about half of new AFDC participants will choose informal care for their children. The expenses of parents who use informal care, which is usually free or inexpensive, will be covered by current program expenditures. The analysis is based on Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data on child care for working guardians on AFDC. These data can help work/welfare program planners determine child care requirements for new initiatives encouraging AFDC recipients to work.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  October 1987 PIC ID NUMBER:  1015 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ccbyww.htm

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TITLE:  Usage of Different Types of Child Care: An Analysis of the SIPP Data Base

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Lorelei R. Brush, Analysis Research and Training

SYNOPSIS:  This report uses data from Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to defend the theory that the availability of child care providers and the affordability of different care arrangements together predict the kinds of care families use. The report differentiates the sorts of families who use informal care-care (care by a child’s parents, siblings, grandparents or other relatives) from those using more formal arrangements (care by nonrelatives in homes or day care facilities) and those who pay for care from those who do not pay. The report notes that SIPP only analyzes what child care parents use, not what care they prefer. Policy planners much know the parents’ preferences in order to apply the SIPP information to predict child care patterns among participants in Federal programs.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  October 1987 PIC ID NUMBER:  1374 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ccusage.htm

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TITLE:  Day Care Centers: 1976-1984, Has Supply Kept Up With Demand?

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  William R. Prosser, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This paper analyzes the growth of day care center capacity in the United States over two points in time, 1976 and 1984, and compares it to the change in potential demand for day care caused by the increased numbers of mothers with young children who were in the labor force. It concludes that day care center supply increased more than the number of young children who have mothers in the labor force.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon McGroder COMPLETION DATE:  May 1986 PIC ID NUMBER:  1474 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/daycare.htm

II. CHILD ABUSE/NEGLECT, CHILD WELFARE, FOSTER CARE

Completed Projects

TITLE:  Prevention Services In Child Welfare: An Exploratory Paper on the Evaluation of Family Preservation & Family Support Programs

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Karl Ensign, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This paper discusses foster care prevention services, focusing on family support and family preservation services within a continuum of child welfare services. Family preservation services are defined as time-limited programs that serve a family at imminent risk of foster care placement with intensive, flexible services usually provided directly in their home. Family support programs are defined as services which provide ongoing support to fragile families within a community context in order to help prevent them from being overwhelmed by future crisis situations. The results of early, as well as more recent, evaluations in both of these areas are presented, describing the effectiveness with which both models appear to improve family functioning and prevent foster care placement. Issues for future evaluations are also discussed.

CONTACT PERSON:  Karl Ensign COMPLETION DATE:  April 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  3877

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TITLE:  Parental Drug Abuse and African American Children in Foster Care: Issue and Study Findings

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Clarice Walker, The National Black Child Development Institute

SYNOPSIS:  This study utilized data regarding African American children in foster care collected by the National Black Child Development Institute to compare whether or not there are differences in the characteristics, needs, services and outcomes for children depending on whether or not parental drug abuse was a contributing factor in their foster care placements. There were four major findings to the analysis: (1) Child welfare agencies are not achieving permanency for most children, particularly for those from homes with parental drug use; (2) Services to address the problems contributing to placement in foster care were either unavailable or insufficiently brokered or coordinated with other organizations to achieve reunification discharges; (3) Relative placements were often available and represent a significant resource to the children; and (4) Families with parental drug abuse were more likely to have less education, be poorly housed, and receive AFDC prior to placement than other families with children in care.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  February 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  3527

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TITLE:  Reliability and Validity of the National Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect Study Conducted by Westat Associates in 1988: Methodological Review

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Deborah Daro, National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse

SYNOPSIS:  This report summaries a methodological review of the Study of the National Incidence of Child Abuse and Neglect of 1988 (NIS-2) and highlights the review’s implications. The review includes an analysis by two statisticians concerning the validity of NIS-2 and the reliability of its results, alternative explanations of the data posed by several child abuse researchers and policy makers, and a secondary analysis of the NIS data which determines its utility to address key policy and program issues. The report identifies a number of possible problems with NIS-2 and recommends ways to increase the accuracy and effectiveness of future studies on child maltreatment.

CONTACT PERSON:  Karl Ensign COMPLETION DATE:  May 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  3325 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/relval.htm

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TITLE:  The Federal Role in Foster Care: A Paper on Current Priority Issue Areas

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Karl Ensign, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  This report uses interviews with staff of the Department of Health and Human Services, pertinent legislative committees, and children and youth advocacy organizations in order to express how each group would like to change the existing foster care system. Systemic and social factors currently challenging the foster care system are described including: the increase in substantiated child abuse cases, the breakdown of the child welfare system, drug abuse, AIDS, and family homelessness. Finally, the report presents a number of unresolved policy issues regarding foster care.

An 11 page update to this paper entitled “Foster Care Summary: 1991” [http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/fcsum91.htm] has been written, which provides a synopsis of the current system, recent trends in the foster care caseload, recent trends in the costs associated with providing substitute care, developments in child welfare services, and recent legislative proposals.

CONTACT PERSON:  Karl Ensign COMPLETION DATE:  September 1989, updated April 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  3842 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/frfoscar.htm

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TITLE:  Infants and Young Children with HIV Infection in Foster Care

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro Systems, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  Approximately 800 HIV-infected children nationally were in foster care placement as of June 1989. This study was designed to define the specific problems related to providing foster care to children with HIV infection. A major element of the project was to conduct site visits to areas with a high incidence of AIDS in children and to learn how organizations have grappled with the issues of providing foster care for HIV-infected children.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  September 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  3936 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/hivinfec.htm

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TITLE:  Analysis of Child Welfare Services Expenditure Data and Child Care Expenditure Data -- Phase II Report

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  American Public Welfare Association

SYNOPSIS:  This report contains the results of the second phase of the child welfare expenditure data clarification study as conducted by the American Public Welfare Association. The study addresses two questions: what were the total estimated Federal, State and local expenditures for child welfare and child day care services for 1984 and 1985? and what were the reported expenditures for six child welfare services for 1984 and 1985? The data on child welfare and child day care services expenditures was assembled from information reported by 42 states through the Voluntary Cooperative Information System (VCIS).

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  September 1988 PIC ID NUMBER:  3126 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/cwsph2.htm

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TITLE:  AIDS Children and Child Welfare

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro Systems, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report summarizes the results of a brief, exploratory study undertaken to obtain an initial understanding of the prevailing issues of HIV infected children and the child welfare system. The objectives of the study were to summarize what was known about the natural history of HIV infected children and the types of non-medical services appropriate to them, define service and financing policy issues, describe how the three cities with the highest incidence of HIV infected children were coping with their care, and to describe exemplary practices and responses that appeared to be working in each city.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  March 1988 PIC ID NUMBER:  3117 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/aidskids.htm

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TITLE:  State Child Welfare Abstracts 1980-1985

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Maximus, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This document tabulates and provides limited analysis of state child welfare data from the Voluntary Cooperative Information System maintained by the American Public Welfare Association under contract to HHS. States are profiled regarding substitute care, child welfare programs, children and youth, and state characteristics. A national summary is also included. VCIS is an integrated data base on foster care, adoption, child maltreatment, and related socio-demographic data.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  December 1987 PIC ID NUMBER:  2597

Projects Underway

TITLE:  Public Policy and the Dynamics of Foster Care

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:     Robert Goerge, University of Chicago      Friedhelm Wulczyn, SUNY Albany

SYNOPSIS:  This two year project analyzes the dynamics of foster care caseloads in three states: New York, Illinois, and Michigan. Using longitudinal state administrative data on the history of all children in foster care since about 1984, the results include analyses of trends in caseload growth, age and other demographic changes in the caseload, the distribution of foster care placements by neighborhood in New York City and Chicago, and rates of recidivism over time. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. A report of analysis from year one if available subsequent reports will follow.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  September 1991

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TITLE:  Intensive Family Reunification Services

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro International, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This project will describe reunification strategies and their availability in a number of states and localities in order to provide a context for more intensive programs that work with a family immediately prior to and/or during the time in which a foster child is returned home. Site visits of highly-regarded programs in this area will be conducted and their objectives and strategies will be compared to what is known about the factors which place a child at greater risk of re-entry into the foster care system. The project will also explore information dissemination networks on best practices in the child welfare area, and describe methods by which the Department could formalize or assist these efforts.

CONTACT PERSON:  Karl Ensign COMPLETION DATE:  Spring 1992

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TITLE:  Community-based Mental Health Services for Children in the Child Welfare System

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro International, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This study will examine how children in the child welfare system receive mental health services. These children may receive services through the child welfare, mental health, education and juvenile justice systems. Visits to five sites will examine how exemplary systems deliver services. Issues explored will include: how mental health services are defined; what mental health services are available; coordination of mental health services with other agencies’ services; the role of the family; costs and funding sources; barriers; and the role of different government and non-government entities.

CONTACT PERSON:  Elisa Koff COMPLETION DATE:  Spring 1992

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TITLE:  Evaluability Assessment of Family Preservation Programs

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  James Bell and Associates, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This project is aimed at developing the capabilities of the child welfare field to conduct important and useful evaluation of innovative services, and developing consensus on key evaluation, policy, and program issues surrounding family preservation in particular. To accomplish these goals this project will clarify the intent of family preservation strategies from the perspective of key actors at all levels of government and program administration, explore the complex child welfare services environment in which such programs must operate, develop appropriate measures of program effectiveness, and develop a detailed research design based on this analysis that will be used to evaluate an existing family preservation program in the coming fiscal year.

CONTACT PERSON:  Karl Ensign COMPLETION DATE:  Fall 1992

III. ADOLESCENTS

Completed Projects

TITLE:  Changes in Marriage and Fertility Behavior: Behavior Versus Attitudes of Young People

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Kristin A. Moore and Thomas M. Stief, Child Trends, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report examines a variety of data regarding current trends in adolescents’ sexual, fertility, and marital behavior and discusses evidence regarding the permanence of these trends. Behavior data are compared with attitudinal measures to conclude that there are significant differences between the conduct and values of young adults. The report suggests that policies which can bring adolescents’ actions in line with their attitudes may be able to affect the disturbing increase in adolescent sex, premarital sex, abortion, non-marital childbearing, and divorce.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  July 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  3655 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/marfet.htm

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TITLE:  Young Unwed Fathers: Research Review, Policy Dilemmas, and Options

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Jacqueline Smollar and Theodora Ooms, Family Impact Seminar

SYNOPSIS:  This report summarizes the results of a conference held in October 1986 regarding research conducted on young unwed fathers. Included are available information regarding the scope of the issue as well as information about programs and policies which affect these fathers and their children.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  October 1987 PIC ID NUMBER:  2966

IV. SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Completed Projects

TITLE:  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Pregnant Women Who Abuse Alcohol: An Overview of the Issue and Federal Response

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Barbara Anderson and Emily Novick, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a disorder that results from a pregnant woman’s consumption of alcohol and is currently the leading known cause of mental retardation. This report discusses various aspects of FAS, including the epidemiology, prevention strategies, impact on current service systems, and gaps in research, data collection and services for at-risk populations. It also highlights federal activities throughout government related to FAS. While some federal programs focus specifically on FAS or FAE, other programs with broad missions contribute to the wellness of alcoholic mothers and children with FAS. Both types of programs are discussed.

CONTACT PERSON:  Emily Novick COMPLETION DATE:  November 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  To Be Determined

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TITLE:  Medically Based Programs Serving Maternal Drug Abusers and Their Children: A Survey of NIDA Grantees

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro International, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report analyzes the results of a survey of programs serving drug abusing women and their children. Nin programs were asked about the services they provide, referrals to other services, and characteristics of the families they serve. The data should help policy makers better understand the characteristics and service needs of drug dependent women and their children and whether they utilize Federal assistance programs. Providers surveyed are located in a variety of cities and are conducting either epidemiological or clinical research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  September 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  4186

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TITLE:  Homeless Families with Children: Programmatic Responses by Five Communities

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro Systems, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This descriptive study examines the configuration of services and programmatic systems in place to provide support to homeless families in five cities. The report describes the specialized needs of homeless families and factors contributing to family homelessness. Although it does not rigorously evaluate the programs in place in each city, the report discusses what aspects of the programs and practices seem especially promising in helping families achieve self sufficiency. The sites included in the study are Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Minneapolis and Oakland.

The final report is in two volumes. Volume I begins with an overview of the problem of family homelessness based on a review of the literature and discussions with national experts and prominent services providers, advocates, and public officials in major U.S. cities. The core of the first volume is the presentation of cross-site findings from the five site visits. These findings are grouped into two categories: findings related to coordination of services and findings related to comprehensiveness of services. The final chapter of Volume I discusses issues and barriers that were discovered during the site visits. These are program and policy concerns that have influenced the state of homeless services in the past and will shape the options for the future. Volume II of the final report includes the site visit reports for each of the five cities and profiles of the programs visited in each city.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  May 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  4068

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TITLE:  Programs Serving Drug Exposed Children and Their Families

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Macro Systems, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This exploratory, descriptive study examines ways in which existing programs or service delivery systems in four cities have adapted to meet the needs of drug-exposed children. Through telephone discussions with 25 expert individuals familiar with issues and programs serving drug-exposed children, the study team identified community programs that were designed or adapted specifically to meet the needs of drug-exposed children. The study team conducted case studies in four cities -- St. Petersburg, Florida; Portland, Oregon; Los Angeles, California; and Chicago, Illinois -- where they viewed programs, interviewed program staff, and visited community organizations serving drug-exposed children. Case study findings were used to identify policy and service delivery issues related to meeting the needs of drug-exposed children and their families. Volume I presents the cross-site findings while Volume II presents the site visit summaries and descriptions of programs visited.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  February 1991 PIC ID NUMBER:  3923

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TITLE:  Drug Exposed Infants and Children: Service Needs and Policy Questions

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Laura Feig, ASPE

SYNOPSIS:  Substance abuse among adults affects not only the individuals taking drugs, but also their families. Particularly devastating is the harm caused by a pregnant substance abuser to her unborn child. This paper was written to bring together available information on the conditions and needs of drug exposed children, federal programs which affect their well being, and outstanding policy questions which must be resolved in the coming months and years.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  January 1990, updated August 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  3725

Projects Underway

TITLE:  Medicaid Costs of Drug Exposed Infants and Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  SysteMetrics/McGraw-Hill, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This project will explore the costs of Medicaid of drug-exposed infants and children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Using the Tape-to-Tape Medicaid database in California, infants will be identified with diagnosis codes indicating parental drug use (e.g. drug withdrawal syndrome in a newborn, or drugs or alcohol affecting the fetus via the placenta or breast milk). Medicaid records for such infants will then be analyzed to determine service utilization patterns and Medicaid expenditures over time for these children and a comparison group. Both descriptive and comparative analyses will be conducted. Records will be analyzed for children born in California 1986 through 1988.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  Mid-1992

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TITLE:  Drug Exposed Children in Educational Settings: A Technical Assistance Package

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Education Development Center, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  After developing a consensus among experts regarding knowledge to data about the needs of drug-exposed children in educational settings, this project will develop several products for pre-school (including Head Start) and elementary school teachers and other school personnel that describe what is known about drug-exposed children, the challenges they may pose for teachers, and promising strategies for working with these children in the classroom. The products will present knowledge gained through existing research and pilot service demonstrations and extrapolate for classroom service providers those findings which could be useful to them in their efforts to serve drug-exposed children. The products to be produced are: (1) A handbook/manual for program administrators; (2) A video with accompanying users’ guide for use by school personnel; and (3) A monograph reviewing research relevant to the educational needs of drug-exposed children. Two versions of written and audiovisual materials will be produced -- one designed for elementary schools and one for Head Start and other preschool programs. Managed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) within HHS, this project is a collaborative effort between ASPE, the U.S. Department of Education, Head Start, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Office of Substance Abuse Prevention.

CONTACT PERSON:  Laura Feig COMPLETION DATE:  Early 1993 (some products may be available sooner)

V. MISCELLANEOUS

Completed Projects

TITLE:  Research on Successful Families

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Marla Krysan, Kristin A. Moore, and Nicholas Zill, Child Trends, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report summarizes the results of a conference regarding research being conducted on successful families. At the conference thirteen of the leading researchers in the field came together to describe their work and define outstanding research issues.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  May 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  3505 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/ressucfa.htm

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TITLE:  Identifying Successful Families: An Overview of Constructs and Selected Measures

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Marla Krysan, Kristin A. Moore, and Nicholas Zill, Child Trends, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  This report is a literature review and synthesis of research conducted on successful families. Discussions include issues of defining successful families and measures which can be used to identify them, methodological issues in research regarding families, and issues relevant to the application of findings.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman COMPLETION DATE:  May 1990 PIC ID NUMBER:  3505.1 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/idsucfam.htm

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TITLE:  A Partial Listing of Problems Facing American Children, Youth, and Families

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  SysteMetrics/McGraw-Hill

SYNOPSIS:  This collection of brief issue papers uses diverse data to describe 15 major problems facing American children and families. Each paper summarizes the state of knowledge about the scope of the problem, trends, current government expenditures, costs per case, effectiveness of current intervention strategies and public attitudes about the problem areas. The report address issues of: child health, adolescents in trouble, child welfare services, lack of child care, lack of early childhood education, lack of child support and homelessness.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal COMPLETION DATE:  August 1989 PIC ID NUMBER:  3879 REPORT LINK:  http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/partlist.htm

Projects Underway

TITLE:  The JOBS Evaluation

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation (Child Trends, Inc., subcontractor)

SYNOPSIS:  This longitudinal study includes a substudy that will follow for five years a sample of mothers and their children ages three to five years old to explore issues such as child care, mother-child interaction, family formation, and the impact on the children of the mother’s participation in the JOBS program.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal COMPLETION DATE:      Interim Impact Report -- 1996      Two-Year Impact Findings -- 1998      Five-Year Impact Findings -- 2000

VI. GRANTS TO IMPROVE SERVICE INTEGRATION

Projects Underway

TITLE:  The Council of Governors’ Policy Advisors’ Second Academy on Families and Children at Risk

GRANTEE:  Judy Chynoweth, The Council of Governors Policy Advisors

SYNOPSIS:  During the second Family Academy, six to seven states will design and set into place comprehensive strategies to improve outcomes for at-risk children and families. They will have defined specific results they intend to achieve for families and children, developed a system to monitor whether these results are being achieved; and fostered integrated, user-friendly service delivery systems. This project is modeled after the first Academy in which ten states participated. It is jointly funded with the Ford Foundation.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal

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TITLE:  National Resource Center for Community-Based Service Integration

GRANTEE:  William A. Morrill, Mathtech, Inc.

SYNOPSIS:  Mathtech will manage a consortium of organizations to carry out the following major functions: (1) summarize and contribute to the state of knowledge by reviewing past efforts and synthesizing the lessons which have been learned, (2) provide accurate, practical, and timely information by acting as a clearinghouse for information about past, current, and planned community efforts directed at creating integrated health and human services delivery systems, (3) provide technical assistance in the development and operation of integrated service delivery systems, and (4) foster the development of local service integration efforts by periodically convening and assisting with the formation of a network of leaders and advocates of systemic change in the delivery of services at the local level.

CONTACT PERSON:  Richard Silva

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TITLE:  Facilitation of Community-Based Service Integration Planning: An Urban Network

GRANTEE:  Martin J. Blank, Institute for Educational Leadership

SYNOPSIS:  The Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc. (IEL) will facilitate service integration through a process of community problem-solving and negotiations exercises combined with a leadership development strategy. IEL will build on its network of cities participating in its Collaborative Leadership Development Program (CLDP) which is supported by the Danforth and Mott Foundation and other local public and private resources. This grant will target four communities during the first year of funding: Flint, MI; Fort Worth, TX; Kansas City, MO; and Washington, DC. A fifth location, Tucson, AZ will be added during the second year of funding.

CONTACT PERSON:  Elisa Koff

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TITLE:  School Based Integrated Services

GRANTEE:  Katharine Briar, Florida International University

SYNOPSIS:  This project, headed by a facilitation team at Florida International University, plans to assist seven schools and their surrounding communities in Broward and Dade Counties to change their relationship. Headed by the school social workers, local facilitation teams that include parents will be organized at each school to plan and advise on improving the integration of services. One mechanism will be the establishment of school-based family resource centers at each school. Also, local consortia, including parents, will be organized to seek resources and support. The State Department of Human Resources is committed to participating in this process and contributing staff to work in the schools or in other capacities as defined with the communities.

CONTACT PERSON:  Gerald Silverman

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TITLE:  Facilitation of Community-Based Service Integration Planning at Seven Urban Sites in Ohio

GRANTEE:  Richard Morgan, Ohio Department of Human Services

SYNOPSIS:  DHS will assign a facilitator to each of seven sites to assist in conducting a needs assessment, resource inventory, and part of a community-based planning process. Local agencies will provide an array of educational, health, family support, and child welfare services. Depending on the site, services will be provided through public schools, family resource centers, or a public housing development. The seven sites are: Summit (Akron), Hamilton (Cincinnati), Franklin (Columbus), Lucas (Toledo), Trumbull (Warren), Montgomery (Dayton), and Allen (Lima) counties.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon M. McGroder

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TITLE:  Facilitating Community-Based Service Integration for Georgia Rural Communities

GRANTEE:  Janet Bittner, Georgia Department of Human Resources

SYNOPSIS:  Three of Georgias major state agencies -- Human Resources, Education, and Medical Assistance -- have formed a collaborative partnership entitled the Family Connection. With funding from the Joseph B. Whitehead Foundation, this group will integrate service delivery at the local level through restructuring organizational relationships and delivery mechanisms among these departments, under the premise that this leads to earlier and more effective delivery of services to children, youth, and families at-risk. Community-based coalitions will include public schools, public health, family and children services, county commissioners, business, juvenile court, mental health, substance abuse councils, and community action agencies.

The federal “facilitator” grant will be used to manage this effort across the seven rural sites, namely, the counties of Murray, Dawson and Hall, Elbert, Emanuel, Coffee and Ware, Lowndes and Mitchell, and the City of Carrollton.

CONTACT PERSON:  Sharon M. McGroder

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TITLE:  New Beginnings: Building Bridges

GRANTEE:  Connie Roberts, San Diego Department of Social Services

SYNOPSIS:  New Beginnings, an existing multi-agency collaboration in San Diego, California, will through this grant be expanded from a single site to four additional site in urban areas of San Diego County -- one more in the city of San Diego, and one each in Vista, National City and El Cajon. All based in schools with large poor and minority populations, the initiative expects to expand the education, health and social services for families.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal

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TITLE:  California Services Integration Project

GRANTEE:  Wayne Sailor, San Francisco State University Foundation

SYNOPSIS:  The Foundation will work with five California municipalities -- Oakland, Fresno, Watsonville, San Bernardino, and San Francisco -- to develop models for the integration of services through the schools to children and families at risk. The project expects both to facilitate the expansion and networking of local community efforts for services integration, and also to provide the state leadership with a sufficient base of demonstrations and evaluative data to ensure that emerging, successful models of service integration can be implemented statewide. The facilitation efforts will include (a) agency collaboration; (b) an immediate focus on disadvantaged and at-risk children; (c) consumer involvement and responsibility; (d) a single point of contact at the local level; (e) a community planning focus; (f) efforts linked with school restructuring; and (f) provision of a variety of social services to families.

CONTACT PERSON:  Ann Segal


RESEARCH BOOKLETS/COMPENDIUMS

The Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy (and the titles the Office has previously been named) have done several booklets describing research conducted by Office funding. The Office's website was originally developed based on these research booklets. As these booklets have been scanned and readied for archival release, links to completed reports mentioned have been added.

Disability, Aging, and Long-Term Care Policy Research: 1992-1996
HTML   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1997/ResBook97.htm
PDF   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1997/ResBook97.pdf
Long-Term Care and Disability Research: 1986-1989
HTML   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1989/ResBook89.htm
PDF   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1989/ResBook89.pdf
Long-Term Care and Disability Research: 1989-1992
HTML   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1992/ResBook92.htm
PDF   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1992/ResBook92.pdf
Research on Children, Youth, and Families: 1986-1990
HTML   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1990/ResBook90.htm
PDF   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1990/ResBook90.pdf
Research and Grants on Issues Relating to Children and Youth: 1986-1991
HTML   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1991/ResBook91.htm
PDF   http://aspe.hhs.gov/daltcp/reports/1991/ResBook91.pdf

To obtain a printed copy of this report, send the full report title and your mailing information to:

U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesOffice of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care PolicyRoom 424E, H.H. Humphrey Building200 Independence Avenue, S.W.Washington, D.C. 20201FAX:  202-401-7733Email:  webmaster.DALTCP@hhs.gov


RETURN TO:

Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy (DALTCP) Home [http://aspe.hhs.gov/_/office_specific/daltcp.cfm]Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) Home [http://aspe.hhs.gov]U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Home [http://www.hhs.gov]

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