Indicators of Child, Family, and Community Connections:

Appendix A:
Data Sources

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Content

Current Population Survey (CPS)

Name: Current Population Survey
 
Funder(s): The core survey is funded by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The supplements are also funded by a variety of sponsors including the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Education, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
 
General Description: The CPS is primarily designed to supply estimates of employment, unemployment and other characteristics of the general labor force, the population as a whole, and various subgroups of the population. In addition to collection of labor force data, the core funding of the CPS provides for collection of annual data on work experience, income, and migration (the annual March income and demographic supplement), and school enrollment of the population (the October supplement). Other supplements conducted include the voting and registration supplement (November of Congressional and presidential election years), the child support and alimony supplement (April), the fertility and birth expectations supplement (June), and the supplement on the immunization status of the population (most recently collected in September 1995).
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. The CPS has been conducted monthly since 1942. The fieldwork is conducted during the calendar week that includes the 19th of the month. In January 1994 a redesigned questionnaire was introduced. This was the most substantial change to the survey since its inception. This new survey includes longer and more detailed questions allowing for more accurate and detailed estimates. The CPS questionnaire is a completely computerized document that is administered by Census Bureau field representatives across the country through both personal and telephone interviews. Households are in the survey for four consecutive months, out for eight, and then return for another four months before leaving the sample permanently.
 
Population: The CPS is representative of the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S.
 
Sample Selection and Description: Data are collected for all household members. Employment and earnings information is collected for persons ages 15 and over, but tabulated for all persons 16 and over. One member of each household contacted is the respondent, and this individual must be a knowledgeable household member 15 years or older. The CPS is administered using a scientifically selected sample of some 50,000 occupied households nationwide. The CPS design over-sampled for Hispanics only. (For more detail see Design and Methodology: http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/tp63rv.pdf)
 
Website: http://www.bls.census.gov/cps/cpsmain.htm
 
Age of Respondent: Respondents are 15 years and older. This primary respondent provides information for each household member. No upper age limit is used, and full-time students are treated the same as non-students. For this report, the age of the adult population is 18 years and older.
 
Age of Child: 0 to 17 years old
 
Indicators: Family structure
Contact with nonresident parents
Parental employment by family structure
Family income
Parental voting
Residential mobility

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Giving and Volunteering in the United States

Name: Giving and Volunteering in the United States
 
Funder(s): The Independent Sector
 
General Description: The Giving and Volunteering in the United States survey collects information on the giving and volunteering habits of Americans. The survey asks about individual volunteering habits in the 12 months prior to the survey and about household giving during the year 2000.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. The Giving and Volunteering in the United States survey is a random digit dial (RDD) telephone survey administered between May and July. The survey was conducted biennially from 1988 through 1998. In order to move the survey away from traditional elections years, the survey was administered in 1999 and will continue to be collected biennially.
 
Population: This survey is representative of all noninstitutionalized adults 21 years of age or older in the U.S.
 
Sample Selection and Description: The sample included 4,216 adults 21 years of age or older. The survey over-sampled for of Hispanics, blacks, and affluent Americans with household incomes of $100,000 or higher. Subsampling of males was also implemented in order to increase their probability of selection to boost the ratio of males versus females in the final sample. Questions about contributions were asked at the household level, whereas questions about volunteer activities were asked at the individual level. Attitudinal or opinion questions were also asked at the individual level.
 
Website: http://www.independentsector.org/programs/research/gv01main.html
 
Age of Respondent: 21 years and older
 
Age of Child: Not applicable
 
Indicators: Volunteering as a family

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National Household Education Survey Program (NHES)

Name: National Household Education Survey Program
 
Funder(s): National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education
 
General Description: The National Household Education Survey Program provides information on education-related issues, such as the care arrangements and educational experiences of young children, children's educational activities and the role of the family in the children's learning, and parental involvement in their children's schooling. The NHES is designed to provide comparative data across survey years, repeating topical surveys on a rotating basis. New topics are added as particular issues gain importance.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. The NHES was conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, and 2003. This random digit-dialed, computer-assisted telephone interview includes all 50 states and the District of Columbia. There are plans to continue the survey periodically in the future.
 
Population: The NHES is a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population of the U.S.
 
Sample Selection and Description: In each survey, between 54,000 and 64,000 households are screened to identify eligible respondents for one of the topics. One or more household members may be selected to complete more extensive interviews on specific topics. In general, two topical surveys are conducted in each administration and 5,000 to 25,000 interviews are completed for each survey. The NHES design over-samples minorities for reliable estimates for these groups. Approximately 8,000 youth in grades 6 through 12 were interviewed for the Youth Civic Involvement Survey in 1996 and another 8,000 for the Youth Survey in 1999. The sample sizes for the parent interview varied by year: in 1996, more than 20,000 parents of children age 3 up through 12th grade responded and in 1999, more than 24,000 parents of children from newborns up through 12th grade responded. In 2001, almost 7,000 parents were interviewed for the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey.
 
Website: http://nces.ed.gov/nhes
 
Unit of Analysis: Adults, parents, or youth depending on the survey administered.
 
Age of Respondent: Depending on the survey administered, respondents are either adults 18 to 65 years old, parents of any age, or youth in grades 6 through 12.
 
Age of Child: For the parent interviews, in 1996, questions were asked about children 3 years old up through 12th grade; in 1999, questions were asked about newborn children up through 12th grade, and, in 2001, questions were asked about children 0-6, not yet in kindergarten and children enrolled in kindergarten through 8th grade (in this report child care is reported only for children 0-6, not yet in kindergarten). The 1996 and 1999 youth surveys asked youth in grades 6-12 about themselves.
 
Indicators: Patterns of child care
Parental involvement in school
Student participation in community service

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National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)

Name: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
 
Funder(s): National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and 17 other federal agencies
 
General Description: Add Health focuses on the causes of health-related behaviors of adolescents, collecting data from surveys of students, parents, and school administrators.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Longitudinal. Four surveys were conducted during Wave I (1994 through 1995): in-school, in-home, school administrator, and parent surveys. Wave II (1996) consisted of in-home and school administrator surveys. Wave III (August 2001 through April 2002) consisted of an in-home survey. Already existing databases provided information about neighborhoods and communities. Questionnaires were administered directly to students using Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) and Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (CASI) systems.
 
Population: Add Health is representative of students in the U.S. in grades 7 through 12 in 1997.
 
Sample Selection and Description: The Wave I In-School Survey collected information from 90,188 students in 80 pairs of schools (each pair consisted of one high school and one of its feeder middle schools, or a single school if it included grades 7 to 12). Approximately 200 adolescents from each school pair were selected for in-home interviews at Wave I; however, in 16 schools, in-home interviews were conducted with all students in order to collect information about adolescent social networks. The sample size for the Wave I In-home Survey was 20,745. The Wave II In-Home Survey sample consisted of 14,738 adolescents who participated in the Wave I survey. The Wave III In-Home Survey sample consisted of 15,197 young adults who participated in the Wave I survey. The study over-sampled African Americans with college-educated parents, Chinese, Cuban, Puerto Rican, and physically-disabled adolescents as well as genetic samples of pairs of siblings who resided in the same household (twins, full and half-siblings, and unrelated teens in the same household).
 
Website: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/
 
Age of Respondent: Wave I (1995) was made up of subjects in grades 7-12. Wave II (1996) was made up of these subjects one year later (grades 8-12), but did not include those who were 12th graders at Wave I. In Wave III, the respondents were 18 to 26 years old.
 
Age of Child: See "Age of Respondent"
 
Indicators: Youth connection to
School peersSchool supportiveness

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National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1997 (NLSY97)

Name: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1997
 
Funder(s): U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Partial funding support is provided by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention of the Department of Justice, the National School to Work Office of the Departments of Education and Labor, and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the Department of Health and Human Services.
 
General Description: The NLSY97 is designed to examine the transition from school to work and into adulthood. It collects extensive information about youths' labor market behavior and educational experiences over time.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Longitudinal. The NLSY97 is a nationally representative survey designed to collect information on the transition from school to work and into adulthood. Extensive information is collected about youths' labor market behavior and educational experiences over time. The survey also collects information on many other topics, for example: youths' relationships with parents, contact with absent parents, marital and fertility histories, dating, sexual activity, onset of puberty, employment or job skills training, participation in government assistance programs, life-course expectations, time use, criminal behavior, and alcohol and drug use. Youths complete personal interviews on an annual basis. Areas of the survey that are potentially sensitive, such as sexual activity and criminal behavior, comprise the self-administered portion of the interview.
 
Population: The NLSY97 is representative of individuals in the U.S. who were 12 to 16 years old as of December 31, 1996.
 
Sample Selection and Description: During Round 1 of the survey, which took place in 1997, both the eligible youth and one of that youth's parents completed hour-long personal interviews. In addition, during the screening process, an extensive two-part questionnaire was administered that listed and gathered demographic information on members of the youth's household and on his or her immediate family members living elsewhere. The Round 1 sample consisted of approximately 9,000 youths who were 12 to 16 years old as of December 31, 1996. Subsequently, the sample size has decreased due to attrition to 8,386 in Round 2, to 8,209 in Round 3, to 8,081 in Round 4. The NLSY97 design over-sampled for black and Hispanic respondents.
 
Website: http://www.bls.gov/nls/nlsy97.htm
 
Age of Respondent: Round 1: 12 to 16 year old adolescents and one parent of the adolescent
Round 2: 13 to 17 year old adolescents
Round 3: 14 to 18 year old adolescents and young adults
Round 4: 15 to 19 year old adolescents and young adults
Round 5: 16 to 20 year old adolescents and young adults
 
Age of Child: See "Age of Respondent"
 
Indicators: Positive parent-adolescent relationships
Parental awareness of adolescents' friends and activities
Adolescent participation in religious activities with their families

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National Study of the Changing Workforce (NSCW)

Name: National Study of the Changing Workforce
 
Funder(s): Families and Work Institute, New York
 
General Description: The NSCW collects information on how work, family, and personal life fit together. The survey is based upon the Quality of Employment Survey (QES) conducted by the Department of Labor from 1969 through 1977. The NSCW addresses the issues in the QES with a strong business perspective and broader social and economic perspectives.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. The NSCW is a nationally representative survey of the nation's labor force conducted every five years. The first survey was conducted in 1992 with subsequent surveys in 1997 and 2002 (not yet released). The NSCW is a random-digit dial survey of households with telephones. Interviews are conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) technology.
 
Population: The NSCW is representative of employed workers in the U.S.
 
Sample Selection and Description: Sample eligibility was limited to people who 1) worked at a paid job or operated an income-producing business, 2) were 18 years or older, 3) were in the civilian labor force, 4) resided in the contiguous 48 states, and 5) lived in a noninstitutional residence with a telephone. One householder was randomly selected to be interviewed in houses where more than one person was eligible. The 1992 sample consisted of 3,718 respondents and the 1997 sample consisted of 3,551 respondents.
 
Website: http://www.familiesandwork.org/nationalstudy.html
 
Age of Respondent: 18 years and older
 
Age of Child: Under 18 years of age
 
Indicators: Work-family stress

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National Survey of America's Families (NSAF)

Name: National Survey of America's Families
 
Funder(s): Annie E. Casey Foundation, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Ford Foundation, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Commonwealth Fund, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Weingart Foundation, the McKnight Foundation, the Fund for New Jersey, The Stuart Foundation, the Bulova Foundation, The Rockefeller Foundation, the Joyce Foundation, and the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation.
 
General Description: The NSAF is a nationally representative survey that collects information on child, adult and family well-being in America, with a focus on low-income families. The survey asks questions related to economic security, health and health care, child well-being, family environment, as well as other topics.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. The NSAF is a random-digit dial survey conducted via computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Three rounds of the survey have been collected - 1997, 1999, and 2002.
 
Population: The NSAF is representative of the noninstitutionalized, civilian population under age 65 in the U.S. and in 13 states: Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, New York, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin.
 
Sample Selection and Description: The sample of random-digit dialed households with telephones was supplemented with a second (area probability) sample of households without telephones. In each year, interviews were obtained from more than 40,000 households, providing information on more than 109,000 persons under age 65. The surveys over-sample families with incomes below 200 percent of the federal poverty level.
 
Website: http://www.urban.org/Content/Research/NewFederalism/NSAF/Overview/NSAFOverview.htm
 
Age of Respondent: Adults under 65 years of age
 
Age of Child: Under 18 years of age
 
Indicators: Parental religious service attendance

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National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH)

Name: National Survey of Families and Households
 
Funder(s): Wave I: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Center for Population ResearchWave II and Wave III: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) & National Institute on Aging
 
General Description: The NSFH was developed to gain more information on the causes and consequences of the changes in American family and household structure.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Longitudinal. Wave I data collection took place from 1987 to 1988. In Wave I, information about the primary respondent for each family was collected using a combination of personal interviews and self-administered questionnaires. A shorter self-administered questionnaire was also given to the primary respondent's spouse/partner. In addition, basic socio-demographic information was collected for all household members, including the primary respondents' children at both Waves I and II. The Wave II, Five-Year Follow-Up was conducted from 1992 to 1994. In Wave II, personal interviews were conducted with the original respondent and his or her partner. In Wave III, data were collected from original respondents with children who are young adults (ages 18 to 33). Release of Wave III data is expected early in 2004.
 
Population: The NSFH is representative of noninstitutionalized adults ages 19 and older in the U.S. who could be interviewed in either English or Spanish. Persons under the age of 19 were ineligible to be interviewed unless they were currently married or no one in the household was over age 19.
 
Sample Selection and Description: Wave I consisted of a nationally representative sample of 13,007 primary respondents, representing 9,637 households. The survey over-sampled minorities, single-parent families, parents with step-children, cohabiting persons and recently married persons. The sample size for Wave II was 10,008.
 
Website: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/nsfh/home.htm
 
Age of Respondent: Primary respondent was 19 years old or older, cohabiter/spouse age was not limited.
 
Age of Child: 0 to 24 years old
 
Indicators: Families with grandparents who live nearby

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Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Name: Panel Study of Income Dynamics - Core Survey and Child Development Supplement (CDS)
 
Funder(s): Original funding agency: Office of Economic Opportunity of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Current major funding source: National Science Foundation. Additional funders: the National Institute on Aging, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the U.S. Department of Labor.
 
General Description: The PSID emphasizes the dynamic aspects of economic and demographic behavior. The core survey collects data on income sources and amounts, employment, family composition changes, and residential location. The Child Development Supplement provides comprehensive data on children and their families with which to study the dynamic process of early human capital formation. The data collection for the Child Development Supplement includes the following: (1) age-graded assessments of the cognitive, behavioral, and health status of 3,563 children (including about 329 immigrant children), obtained from various adults involved with the child, and the child; (2) parental and caregiver time inputs to children as well as how children and adolescents spend their time; (3) teacher-reported time use in elementary and preschool programs; and (4) measures of other resources, for example, the learning environment in the home, school resources, and decennial-census-based measurement of neighborhood resources.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Longitudinal. The data were collected annually from 1968 to 1997, and biennially starting in 1999. The Child Development Supplement (administered in 1997 and 2002-2003) provides data on parents and their 0- to 12-year-old children.
 
Population: The PSID reports on a representative sample of individuals (men, women, and children) in the U.S. and the family units in which they reside.
 
Sample Selection and Description: The original sample was based on a probability sample of about 4,800 households, a combination of a cross-section of about 3,000 families selected from the Survey Research Center's master sampling frame and a subsample of about 2,000 families from the Census Bureau's Survey of Economic Opportunity. Because family members, such as children, who form their own households continue in the sample, the sample size has grown from 4,800 families in 1968 to 7,406 families in 2001. If a family has a child age 12 or younger, the entire PSID Household Unit was eligible for the Child Development Supplement. The Supplement had a sample of 2,394 child households and about 3,600 children.
 
Website: http://psidonline.isr.umich.edu/
 
Age of Respondent: 18 to 65 years old
 
Age of Child: 2 to 17 years old for Family structure change
0 to 13 years old for Parental warmth and affection
0 to 13 years old for Time spent with parents
 
Indicators: Family structure change
Parental warmth and affection with younger children
Time spent with parents

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National Vital Statistics System

Name: National Vital Statistics System
 
Funder(s): National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Centers for Disease Control of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
 
General Description: Vital Statistics is a major collection of data at the federal, state, and sub-state levels of births and deaths from the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Data collection is continuous. Data are collected via birth, death, and fetal death records. All certificates are collected from the 50 states and the District of Columbia and reported to the Division of Vital Statistics. Monthly and annual reports of provisional data and annual and special subject reports based on final data are issued. All states have been included in the birth registration area since 1933.
 
Population: vAll certificates are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories, and reported to the Division of Vital Statistics.
 
Sample Selection and Description: Not applicable. Data are collected from actual records.
 
Website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm
 
Age of Respondent: Records are collected for all persons who have had a child. Data for mothers age 15 to 19 years old are included in this report.
 
Age of Child: Births to 15-19-year-old females
 
Indicators: Births to unmarried teens

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Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCB)

Name: Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey
 
Funder(s): Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and three-dozen community foundations in Phoenix, Atlanta, Baton Rouge, Birmingham, Boston, Boulder, Los Angeles, Charlotte, Syracuse, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Delaware, Denver, East Tennessee, Fremont (MI), Grand Rapids, Greensboro, Houston, Indiana, Kanawha Valley (WV), Kalamazoo, Maine (Lewiston-Auburn), Montana, New Hampshire, Peninsula Silicon Valley (CA), Rochester, St. Paul, San Diego, San Francisco, Southeastern Michigan (Detroit), Winston-Salem, York (PA), Bismarck, central Oregon, Minneapolis, North Minneapolis, South Dakota, Seattle, and Yakima.
 
General Description: The SCCB is the first step in a campaign by over three dozen community foundations to rebuild levels of connectedness in their communities. This collaboration builds on the work of Professor Robert D. Putnam (author of Bowling alone: Collapse and revival of the American community), and the strategies for civic revitalization outlined in a report by the Saguaro Seminar, Better Together. The survey collects information on the relative strengths and areas for improvement in communities' civic behavior.
 
Design (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal; periodicity; mode of administration): Cross-sectional. Random-digit dialed telephone interviews were conducted by Taylor Nelson Sofres Intersearch Corporation between July and November of 2000. This one-time survey is expected to serve as a baseline with which to compare future progress. The survey was developed by the Saguaro Seminar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government with the involvement of a Scientific Advisory Group consisting of experts on social capital measurement.
 
Population: The SCCB is representative of adults, 18 years and older.
 
Sample Selection and Description: The national sample consists of 3,000 respondents. The survey includes a two-times over-sample of Hispanics and African-Americans. In addition, representative samples in 40 communities nationwide (across 29 states) covering an additional 26,200 respondents were interviewed. In the national sample, confidence intervals are plus or minus 2.1 percentage points for the total population, and plus or minus 5 percentage points for Hispanics and African-Americans.
 
Website: http://www.cfsv.org/communitysurvey/
 
Age of Respondent: 18 years and older
 
Age of Child: Not applicable
 
Indicators: Neighborhood community
Community of friends
Concern for safety


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