Children in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Child-Only Cases with Relative Caregivers

Final Report

June 2004

Prepared for:
David Nielsen
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation(ASPE)
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Prepared by:
Deborah Gibbs, Jennifer Kasten, Anupa Bir, and Sonja Hoover
RTI International
Dean Duncan
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Janet B. Mitchell
Scientific Reviewer

This report is available on the Internet at:

Printed Copy (in PDF format)


Executive Summary


  1. Introduction
  2. Literature Review
  3. Secondary Analysis
  4. Case Studies
  5. Summary and Conclusions



Figure 1-1 Pathways to Kinship Care
Figure 2-1 Number of Child-Only Cases and Proportion of the TANF Caseload


Table 2-1 Child-Only Cases as a Percentage of Total TANF Caseload, October 2000 - September 2001
Table 2-2 Reasons Parents in Household Not Eligible for Assistance, October 2000 - September 2001
Table 2-3 Relationship of Child-Only Recipient to Head of Household, October 2000 - September 2001
Table 2-4 Child Welfare Involvement and Financial Support for Kinship Care
Table 2-5 Services Available to Families in Kinship Care
Table 2-6 Child-Only References in Annual State TANF Plans
Table 2-7 Child-Only Trends and Practices by State
Table 3-1 Descriptions of Comparison Groups
Table 3-2 Logic and Order of Comparison Group Creation
Table 3-3 Definitions of TANF Eligibility by Income Range and Household Size
Table 3-4 Demographic Characteristics of Children by Group
Table 3-5 Summary of Child Well-Being Measures by Age
Table 3-6 Measures of Well-Being
Table 3-7 Child-Reported Service Use
Table 3-8 Caregiver Reported Program Use
Table 3-9 Percent Reporting Social Services Received by Children
Table 3-10 Logic and Order of Comparison Group Creation
Table 3-11 Demographics
Table 3-12 Percent Reporting Service Use
Table 3-13 Child's Home and Environment
Table 3-14 Child's Nutrition
Table 3-15 Child's Education
Table 3-16 Child's Health and Health Care Utilization
Table 4-1 Data Collection Approaches
Table 4-2 Characteristics of TANF Child-Only Cases, FY2001
Table 4-3 Financial Support for Formal and Informal Kinship Care
Table 4-4 Licensed and Unlicensed Relative Foster Care
Table 4-5 Relative Guardianship Programs

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Last updated:10/18/04