HHS/ASPE. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.Background

Overview and Inventory of HHS Efforts to Assist Incarcerated and Reentering Individuals and their Families

National Institutes of Health

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Contents

Basic Sciences Program/Division of AIDS (DAIDS)

HIV/AIDS Research Related to Incarcerated Individuals

The Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) program funds a wide variety of research projects on HIV/AIDS. CFAR projects listed here involve research on HIV/AIDS in incarcerated populations. It is important to note, however, that neither the CFAR program nor these projects noted below focus exclusively on incarcerated individuals.

Funding Mechanism: P30 grant

Total Funding: $37.5 M FY09 for entire CFAR Program

Number of Awards: 20 CFAR awards in FY2009; 2 of these awards are described below

Individual Award Amount: *Please note award amounts listed are not specific to research in incarcerated individuals and their families

Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research grant: FY09 – FY10 $3,175,770

University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research grant: FY09 - FY10 $4,942,198

Length of Project Period: 5 years

Federal Partners: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), National Institute on Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute on Child and Human Development (NICHD), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), Office of AIDS Research (OAR), Fogarty International Center (FIC)

Summary: The CFAR program emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration, especially between basic and clinical investigators, that promotes basic, clinical, behavioral, and translational research in the prevention, detection, and treatment of HIV infection and AIDS.

The Lifespan/Tufts/Brown CFAR Core D provides key support to the CFAR Prisoner Health and Human Rights Scientific Working Group. It has supported new initiatives on HIV testing and treatment within corrections internationally (R01 application, regarding HIV in corrections in the country of Georgia) and stimulated new initiatives in "Seek, Test, Treat, and Care" in the correctional setting (R01 grant applications by Drs Beckwith and Martin). In 2005, Dr. Curt Beckwith received a Lifespan/Tufts/Brown CFAR Developmental Award to investigate the effect of different HIV testing and counseling strategies delivered to jail inmates on HIV risk behavior following release from jail. The goal of this study was to compare standard HIV testing coupled with standard HIV counseling delivered by the Rhode Island Department of Corrections personnel to rapid HIV testing coupled with individualized risk reduction counseling delivered by a research team member, as well as the impact of these different testing and counseling packages on HIV risk behavior following release from jail. A manuscript entitled "HIV Risk Behavior Pre- and Post-HIV Testing in Jail; a Pilot Study" was recently published in JAIDS 2010; 53(4): 485-90. NIHMSID: 172917. He also presented a secondary analysis entitled "Identification of multiple risk HIV factors among jail detainees" [Oral Abstract 375] at the 2009 National HIV Prevention Conference, August 23-26, 2009, Atlanta, GA.

Some of the University of North Carolina CFAR work with the prison system (Wohl, DAI7501) is co-funded by NIAID and NIDA. Projects funded through the UNC CFAR focus on HIV and drug resistance testing (Leone, MH68686), and include these studies people in and leaving the prison system (Wohl, MH079720). The UNC CFAR Criminal Justice Workgroup seeks to understand and reduce the spread of infectious diseases among vulnerable communities through collaboration with community organizations. Over the last three years, and with the assistance of Core G, members from the workgroup have submitted and obtained several NIH and private foundation-sponsored grants related to its aims, including a large ROI to assess HIV prevalence and testing behavior of prison inmates, multiple grants to implement a case management service program to facilitate transition of released inmates into communities, and an R21 to describe the social networks of inmates by utilizing Staphylococcus aureus as a biomarker for social contact.

Current Grantees: The University of North Carolina and Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Centers for AIDS Research projects currently have working groups in the area of incarcerated populations.

Evaluation Activities: None

Future Prospects: Plans to reissue the CFAR Program in 2011

Contacts:

Ann Namkung Lee
Health Specialist, Basic Science Program
Division of AIDS, NIAID
Phone : (301) 496-9176
Email: an107z@nih.gov

Candice Beaubien 
Contractor, HealthCareIT, Basic Sciences Program
Division of AIDS, NIAID
Phone: (301) 496-4136
Email: beaubiencm@niaid.nih.gov

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National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Research to Provide Alcohol Treatment to Released Prisoners

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 2

Amount (current year): about $225,000

Length of Project PeriodVaries

SummaryThe National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) currently has a small investment in research involving incarcerated individuals reentering society. One study using telemedicine technology focuses on access to alcohol services for rural offenders reentering the community. This study is part of a larger effort to support research that examines: health and social services and the service delivery system within treatment settings; processes for identifying and implementing empirically supported and sustainable intervention strategies; and programmatic and systemic policies that promote effective intervention and supportive services in real world settings where patients and their families are found. Another study is recruiting HIV positive prisoners who are being released to assess the effectiveness of a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence both on drinking behavior and on adherence to HIV treatment. This study fits into NIAAA’s efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in a variety of populations and to determine which medications for alcohol dependence are most effective for certain individuals in specific settings.

Background: Alcohol dependence and harmful drinking are over-represented in the prison population. In this population, as in the population at large, the majority of individuals who could benefit from treatment for alcohol problems do not receive it. Efforts to expand accessible and affordable treatment in general also include research to understand what is most effective for prisoners and those re-entering society after incarceration.

Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
Michele Tindall University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY
Reentry Alcohol Services for Rural Offenders
Sandra Springer Yale University Department of Medicine
New Haven, CT
Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Among Released Prisoners

Locations of Projects: See above

Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact:
Patricia Powell, Ph.D.
Office of Science Policy, NIH
Phone: (301) 443-5106
Email: Patricia.Powell@nih.gov

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National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Infectious Disease Research Related to Incarcerated Individuals

The following three projects/awards fund infectious disease research related to incarcerated individuals, with a focus on treatment, prevention, and transmission of Hepatitis C virus, Staphylococcus aureus, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted infections in prisoner populations. These awards are not part of a program or initiative that specifically focuses on incarcerated individuals.

Funding mechanism: Grants (U19, UR01, R21 and U01, respectively)

Total funding per award:

Number of awards: 3

Length of project:

  1. Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Prison Population (2005-2010)
  2. Risk Factors for Spread of Staphylococcus aureus in Prisons (2009-2014)
  3. Disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young women: Role of individual--and community-level exposures to incarceration and crime (2009-2010)

Federal Partners: None

Summary:

Acute Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in the Prison Population: Therapies for HCV infection have improved recently, but still fail in many persons and are unavailable for most infected individuals worldwide. Therefore understanding natural immunity to this infection and the development of prophylactic vaccines and immunotherapies remain urgent goals. To this end, it will be essential to better understand the earliest events during acute HCV infection, as this is the exclusive time at which spontaneous clearance of viremia has been observed to occur. In Massachusetts we are studying the problem of acute HCV infection in recently incarcerated intravenous drug users, an important underserved population with a high risk of HCV exposure. A better understanding of the complex interaction between human immune system and the virus will offer insights into the mechanisms involved in viral control and persistence, information that promises to facilitate future preventive and therapeutic interventions against HCV infection and disease.

This project is supported under the Hepatitis C Cooperative Research Center awarded to George Lauer in 2005, and renewed in 2010, in response to a NIAID RFA entitled Hepatitis C Cooperative Research Centers, which aims to foster and stimulate high-quality, multi-disciplinary collaborative research focused on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and disease.

Risk Factors for Spread of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in Prisons: The dramatic rise in community-based S. aureus infections, many due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has become an important public health problem. This proposal will focus on prisoners, a high-risk group that has received limited attention. Our long term goal is to develop strategies that will prevent and control transmission of S. aureus within the prison system as well as in similar crowded environments by: (i) identifying patterns of S. aureus strain transmission within the prison, (ii) determining the factors associated with the development of clinical infections within the prison and (iii) identifying risk factors associated with colonization and/or infection with S. aureus at prisoner intake and at release.

Disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young women: Role of individual- and community-level exposures to incarceration and crime: Although there are significant and longstanding racial disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STI) among young women, their causal mechanisms are unidentified. One factor known to differ significantly by race and correlate strongly with STI risk is incarceration. High rates of incarceration and crime in a community have also been associated with higher STI prevalence in that community. Our research aims to (i) assess whether the association between incarceration and sexually transmitted infections (STI) is stronger when incarceration precedes first STI; (ii) assess whether community incarceration and crime rates are associated with an individual's risk of STI, after accounting for an individual's incarceration history; and (iii) assess whether increased risk of STI among minority young women is diminished when accounting for an individual's differential incarceration rate and exposure to community incarceration and crime rates.

Background:The three awards are a mix of investigator-initiated and solicited research in various initiatives related to infectious disease.

Current Grantees:

Principle Investigator Location Title
Arthur Kim Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA Acute Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in the Prison Population
Elaine Lucille Larson and Franklin Lowy Columbia University Health Sciences New York, NY Risk Factors for Spread of Staphylococcus aureus in Prisons
Sarah Elizabeth Wiehe Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis Indianapolis, IN Disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young women: Role of individual- and community-level exposures to incarceration and crime

Evaluation Activities: N/A

Future prospects: The HCV Cooperative Research Centers program was recompeted in 2010

Disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young women: Role of individual- and community-level exposures to incarceration and crime--funded until FY11

Contacts:

Acute Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in the Prison Population: Rajen Koshy, rkoshy@niaid.nih.gov

Risk Factors for Spread of Staphylococcus aureus in Prisons: Clayton Huntley, chuntley@niaid.nih.gov

Disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young women: Role of individual- and community-level exposures to incarceration and crime: Dr. Hagit David, hagit.david@nih.gov

Contents

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Behavioral Therapies Development Program

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grant

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 6

Average Award Amount (current year): $439,000

Length of Project Period: 5 years

Federal Partners: NIAAA/NIH

Summary: These grants are part of a broader research program on the behavioral (and combined behavioral and pharmacological) treatment of drug abuse and addiction and its consequences (i.e., HIV risk reduction). These specific grants are aimed at developing and testing behavioral therapies specifically for individuals who are part of the criminal justice system.

Background: More and better treatment is needed in the criminal justice system.It is estimated that about half of state and federal prisoners meet the criteria for drug abuse and dependence and yet fewer than 20 percent who need treatment receive it. Forced abstinence (when it occurs) during incarceration is not equivalent to treatment. Failure to receive needed treatment or access to services often leads to relapse and re-arrest, usually during the first 12 months after release. Moreover, criminal justice settings are important venues for providing drug abuse and HIV prevention services and for identifying and treating HIV and drug use disorders. The Behavioral Therapies Development Program was established in 1992 with the goal of comprehensively supporting the development of behavioral (and combined behavioral and pharmacological) treatments for drug abuse and addiction. In 2008, NIDA solicited research applications studying the Interaction of HIV, Drug Use, and the Criminal Justice System. Applications were required to include research projects for developing interventions or research on translating and disseminating effective interventions into criminal justice settings.

Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
June Tangney George Mason University Fairfax, VA Jail-Based Treatment to Reduce Substance Abuse, Recidivism and Risky Behavior
Lyn Stein University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI Motivation and Skills for Detained Teen Smokers
Lyungai Filela Mbilinyi University of Washington Seattle, WA Motivating Substance Abusing Batterers to Seek Treatment
Jennifer Johnson Brown University Providence, RI Group IPT for Women Prisoners with Comorbid Substance Use and Depression
Lynda Stein University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI Motivation and Skills For THC/ETOH+ Teens in Jail
Marina Campbell Tolou-Shams   Lifespan Providence, RI HIV Prevention in the Family Drug Court
Elizabeth Letourneau Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, SC Targeting HIV Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Drug Court-Involved Youth
Frederick Altice Yale University New Haven, CT Intervention of HIV, Drug Use, and the Criminal Justice System in Malaysia

Location(s) of Projects: See above.

Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact:

Susan Weiss, Ph.D.
Phone: (301) 443-6071
Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Criminal Justice Prevention Research Portfolio

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 8 grants

Average Award Amount (current year): $521,000

Length of Project Period: Varies

Federal Partners: N/A

Summary: The National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA) Prevention Research Portfolio supports research across the lifespan to reduce risks and prevent the initiation and progression of drug use to abuse and prevent drug-related HIV acquisition, transmission and progression. This program, in particular, supports research related to drug abuse and HIV prevention for youth, adults and their families (including integergenerational studies) who are at increased risk for and involved in the criminal justice system, including incarceration and reentry. The currently funded grants cover a broad array of topics and populations. Several grants specifically target ethnic minorities including African American and Hispanic youth; these groups are over-represented in the incarcerated youth population. Other grants target adolescent girls who are involved in the juvenile Justice system; a population at particular risk for continued problem behaviors and victimization. As a whole these prevention intervention grants attempt to identify and intervene with youth who are at risk for increasingly more intense levels of criminal justice involvement. Strategies for intervention vary, but include education and empowerment activities, brief court-based substance use interventions, and motivational interviewing.

Background: More than 31 million youth aged 10 to 17 years were under juvenile court jurisdiction in 2007 ( National Center for Juvenile Justice, 2010). Of the 1,666,100 delinquency cases processed in 2007, 54% involved youth younger than 16; 27% involved females; and 64% involved white youth. The problem appears to be escalating at a greater rate for females than males with the female delinquency caseload growing at an average rate of 3% per year compared to 1% per year for males between 1985 and 2007.

From the prevention perspective, it is important to examine the intergenerational impact of criminal justice involvement. Children of parents in the criminal justice system are a population of "lost" (not captured in any system) and vulnerable children, many of whom live in families who have generations of problems with drug abuse, antisocial behavior, etc. In 2007, approximately 52% of state and 63% of federal inmates were parents, and over 1.7 million children had parents in prison (Glaze & Maruschak, 2008). Proportionately more inmates were persons of color than Caucasian, and thus Black and Hispanic children were much more likely to have an incarcerated parent than a White child (8 times and 3 times, respectively). Families with an incarcerated parent experienced a variety of problems including homelessness (9%), physical or sexual abuse (20%), medical problems (41%), mental health problems (57%) and substance abuse (67%). Despite these problems, just prior to arrest or incarceration, approximately two-thirds of mothers and half of fathers reported living with their minor children and about half of both fathers and mothers reported being the primary source of support for those children. During incarceration, 85% of mothers and 78% of fathers reported contact with a child. All of these factors must be taken into account when devising interventions to prevent the vicious cycle of drug abuse and criminal justice involvement.

Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
Ronald Lloyd Braithwaite Dept of Community Health/Preventive Medicine Atlanta, GA Morehouse School of Medicine (M-MIDARP)
Noelle R. Leonard New York University New York, NY Prevention Intervention for Drug Use & Related Behaviors with Incarcerated Youth
Jeffery N. Draine Center for Mental Health Policy Philadelphia, PA Education and Empowerment Intervention for HIV Prevention In and Out of Jail
Leslie Diane Leve Oregon Social Learning Center Eugene, OR Juvenile Justice Girls: Pathways to Adjustment and System Use in Young Adulthood
Guillermo Prado University of Miami School of Medicine Miami, FL Preventing Drug Abuse and HIV in Hispanic First Offenders
Elizabeth J. D’Amico Rand Santa Monica, CA Brief Substance Use Intervention for Youth in Teen Court
Dana K. Smith OSLC Community Programs Eugene, OR Prevention Drug Abuse & HIV/AIDS in Delinquent Youths: An Integrated Intervention
Anthony Spirito Brown University Providence, RI Individual & Family Motivational Interviews for Substance Using Truant Teens

Locations of Projects: See above

Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact:

Susan Weiss, Ph.D.
Phone: (301) 443-6071
Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS)

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grant; Cooperative Agreement Grant (U01)

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 12

Average Award Amount (current year): $538,000

Length of Project Period: Varies

Federal Partners: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT/SAMHSA), Department of Justice, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Summary: The Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) is a research cooperative studying organizational processes involved in the successful implementation of high-quality drug abuse treatment services in criminal justice settings. Each Research Center has partnered with at least one criminal justice setting (i.e., prisons, jails, probation/parole offices, reentry drug courts) and the collaborative provides a platform for multi-site treatment services research trials on implementing and sustaining improved drug abuse treatment services across a coordinated continuum of care for offenders with substance use disorders who are returning to the community after detention or incarceration. Studies focus on three topics: implementation of effective screening and assessment for the development of post-release treatment service planning; implementing medication assisted treatment through the development of inter-organizational linkages between community corrections and community-based treatment service providers; and implementation of a coordinated HIV continuum of care including prevention, testing, and linkage to treatment for offenders transitioning from the institution to the community.

Background: Many research-based clinical interventions and treatment services have not been adopted for criminal justice populations and consequently few drug-involved offenders benefit from them.  From 2002-2007, NIDA funded the first phase of the CJ-DATS cooperative, which fielded 13 studies in 8 topical areas, all testing the effectiveness of specific interventions and treatment practices for incarcerated populations. In the course of conducting these studies, researchers identified multiple organizational and systems-level barriers to full-scale adoption and sustainability of these interventions in routine practice. The implementation of research-based drug abuse treatment practices in criminal justice settings often faces clinical, administrative, organizational, and policy barriers.  While various implementation barriers are often surmounted during the course of research, if the solutions are expedient rather than systemic the intervention may not be sustainable once the study ends — regardless of its clinical effectiveness or cost-effectiveness. Thus, the research being conducted under the second phase of CJ-DATS supports organizational and systems-level studies on implementation and sustainability of three key practices: assessment, medication-assisted treatment, and a continuum of HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services.

Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
Mike Shafer Arizona State University
Phoenix, AZ
The Arizona Network for the Study of Implementation Effectiveness
Linda Frisman University of Connecticut 
West Hartford, CT
CT Research Center for Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Study Center
Christy Visher University of Delaware 
Newark, DE
Implementing Effective HIV/Drug Treatment in Corrections-MidStates CJ-DATS Center
Tim Kinlock Friends Research Inst 
Baltimore, MD
Implementing Treatment Initiatives for Criminal Justice Clients
Carl Leukefeld University of Kentucky 
Lexington, KY
Central States Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Center
Peter Friedmann Lifespan 
Providence, RI
Continuum of Care for Drug-Involved Offenders
Stan Sacks NDRI 
New York, NY
NDRI Rocky Mountain Research Center for CJDATS 2
Michael Prendergast UCLA
Los Angeles, CA
Pacific Coast Research Center of CJ-DATS 2
Kevin Knight Texas Christian University
Fort Worth, TX
Implementing and Sustaining Innovations in Criminal Justice-DATS 2
Steve Belenko Temple University
Philadelphia, PA
The Pennsylvania Research Center at Temple University
Howard Liddle University of Miami School of Medicine
Miami, FL
Center for Implementing Juvenile Justice Drug Abuse & HIV Systems Interventions
Faye Taxman George Mason University
Manassas, VA
Action Research to Advance Implementation in the CJS: CJ-DATS 2 Continuation

Location(s) of Projects:  See above.

Evaluation Activities:  Process evaluations are built into each of the three implementation trials being conducted in CJ-DATS. As a cooperative agreement, NIDA also plays an active role in study design and management. Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects:  Dependent in part on results of research studies, which are just entering the field.

Contact:

Susan Weiss, Ph.D.
Phone: (301) 443-6071

Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Criminal Justice Epidemiology Research Portfolio

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grant

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards14

Average Award Amount (current year): $493,000 total costs

Length of Project PeriodVaries

Federal PartnersNational Institute on Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)

SummaryThe grants within the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Criminal Justice Epidemiology Research Portfolio are primarily longitudinal studies and secondary data analyses investigating substance abuse in incarcerated or formerly-incarcerated youth and adults. Many of the grants included in this portfolio focus specifically on minority populations that are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system (e.g., African American and Hispanic racial/ethnic groups). Grantees examine racial/ethnic and gender disparities; the effects of incarceration on the onset, persistence, desistence, and recurrence of drug abuse disorders; the dynamic relationships between patterns of drug use and adult social role performance; and how risk and protective factors mediate patterns of drug use. Some studies within this portfolio also focus on the spread of STIs and HIV/AIDS within this population, with the aim of informing future strategies to reduce the spread of these diseases. Other grantees examine the effects of parental incarceration on children with regard to mental health and substance abuse outcomes.

Background: In recent decades, the number of adults involved in the criminal justice system has soared from about 1.8 million in 1980 to 7.3 million in 2007, due in large part to prosecutions of drug-related crimes and drug-addicted offenders. Criminal offenders have rates of substance abuse and dependence that are more than four times that of the general population. To help identify solutions to address this devastating problem, NIDA funds projects that examine substance abuse disorders among incarcerated individuals. Ultimately, the studies funded follow the high-risk incarcerated or formerly-incarcerated populations in an effort to inform policy and interventions to protect and/or reduce this group from the burden of substance abuse disorders and other diseases

Examples of Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
Adams, Leah Maria George Mason University
Fairfax, VA
HIV Risk Behavior in Recently Released Jail Inmates: The Roles of Perceived Risk
Golder, Seana University of Louisville Research Foundation
Louisville, KY
Victimization and Women in the Criminal Justice System
Hoven, Christina W. Columbia University
New York, NY
Paternal Criminal Justice Involvement and Substance Use in Children & Adolescents
Hoven, Christina W. Columbia University
New York, NY
Maternal Incarceration and Course of Child Psychopathology in the South Bronx
Johnson, Mark E University of Alaska Anchorage 
Anchorage, AK
HIV, Drugs, and Prisoners: Barriers to Epidemiologic and Intervention Research
Khan, Maria Rabia NDRI 
New York, NY
Longitudinal Study of Substance Use, Incarceration, and STI in the US
Khan, Maria Rabia University of Maryland 
College Park, MD
Relationship Disruption During Incarceration and HIV Risk in African American Men
Kim, Seijeoung University of Illinois, Chicago 
Chicago, IL
Incarceration Effects on Prevention of Drug Use, STI-HIV and Recidivism
Mulvey, Edward P Western Psychiatric Inst & Clinic 
Pittsburgh, PA
Pathways to Desistance from SU Problems and Crime
Teplin, Linda A Northwestern University
Chicago, IL
Drug Abuse, Incarceration & Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS: A Longitudinal Study
Teplin, Linda A Northwestern University 
Chicago, IL
Drug Use Disorder & HIV/AIDS Risk in Juvenile Justice Youth: A Longitudinal Study
Teplin, Linda A Northwestern University 
Chicago, IL
Trajectories of Drug Abuse in High Risk Youth
Ensminger, Margaret E. Bloomberg School of Public Health 
Baltimore, MD
Drug Abuse and Crime Across the Life Course in an African American Population
Wu, Ping Columbia University
New York, NY
Drug Abuse, Criminal Justice System Involvement & Health Disparities in Youth

Location(s) of Projects: See above

Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact: Susan Weiss, Ph.D.

Phone: (301) 443-6071

Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Medications Development for Incarcerated Individuals and Parolees

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 9

Average Award Amount (current year): $360,000

Length of Project Period: Varies

Federal Partners: N/A

Summary: These projects are testing treatments for opiate addiction and its medical consequences within criminal justice settings. Specifically, studies will be evaluating the effectiveness of initiating opiate replacement therapy (methadone) prior to release from prison vs referral to a methadone-treatment program on release, on reducing HIV risk behaviors; testing the efficacy of buprenorphine as well as methadone, prior to release from incarceration; testing a long-acting form of the opiate antagonist naltrexone; and adapting and testing a continuity of care model between the prison and community settings for inmates infected with Hepatitis C virus who have a history of drug use and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

Background: There are currently two medications available for opiate addiction, methadone and buprenorphine. However, these have not been widely adopted by criminal justice systems. Research to demonstrate their effectiveness within criminal justice populations as well as the development and testing of additional medications for both drug abuse as well as its medical consequences (e.g., HIV, Hepatits C) is necessary to encourage the implementation of these treatments within the criminal justice system.

Current Grantees: 
Principle Investigator Location Title
Josiah Rich Miriam Hospital
Providence, RI
Opiate Replacement Therapy at Release from Incarceration
Charles O’Brien University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, PA
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (1/6) Philadelphia Coordinator/Data Management Site
Peter Friedmann Rhode Island Hospital 
Providence, RI
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (2/6) Rhode Island Protocol Treatment Site
Joshua Lee NYU School of Medicine 
New York, NY
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (3/6) Bellevue Protocol Treatment Site
Edward Nunes Columbia University 
New York, NY
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (4/6) Columbia Protocol Treatment Site
Timothy Kinlock Friends Research Institute 
Baltimore, MD
Treatment Study Using Depot Naltrexone (5/6) Baltimore Protocol Treatment Site
Peter Friedmann Rhode Island Hospital 
Providence, RI
Stabilize Addiction/Affect, Begin Inmates’ Interferon for HCV of Liver (STAABIHL)
Curt Beckwith Miriam Hospital
Providence, RI
Comprehensive HIV Strategies for Jails
Timothy Flanigan Miriam Hospital
Providence, RI
HIV and Other Infectious Consequences of Substance Abuse

 Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact:

Susan Weiss, Ph.D.
Phone: (301) 443-6071
Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Seek, Test, and Treat: Addressing HIV in the Criminal Justice System

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism: Grant

Total Available Funding:

Number of Awards: 9

Average Award Amount (current year): $925,000

Length of Project Period: Varies

Federal Partners: NIAID and NIMH

Summary: Seek, Test, and Treat: Addressing HIV in the Criminal Justice System is an initiative intended for funding in FY 2011 to empirically test the “seek, test, and treat” paradigm in criminal justice populations. This model involves reaching out to high risk, hard to reach groups who have not been recently tested (seek), engaging them in HIV testing (test), and initiating, monitoring, and maintaining HAART for those testing positive (treat).  Researchers will develop, implement, and test strategies to increase HIV testing and the provision of HAART to HIV seropositive individuals involved with the criminal justice system, with particular focus on continuity of HAART during and after community reentry following incarceration.  Key outcome measures include linkage to care (e.g., seen at care center post-release) and viral suppression (e.g., proportion with undetectable viral load 6 months or more after initiation of ART).  Researchers will conduct intervention research at the individual, organizational, or system level that leads to effective approaches for expanding access to HIV testing and HAART treatment in the criminal justice system and in community organizations working with criminal justice systems and populations. 

Background: The overrepresentation of both drug abuse and HIV within criminal justice populations demands better strategies to integrate services and improve outcomes for both. Fourteen percent of HIV-infected individuals pass through correctional facilities each year. Yet criminal justice-based services and health and social services offered in the community remain fragmented. Prison settings offer a good opportunity to integrate substance use treatment with early HIV diagnosis and initiation of HAART therapy and will offer a fertile testing ground for this innovative strategy — to include reliable maintenance of treatment in the community.

Current grantees:

A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cohort Study of HIV Testing and Linkage to Care (Principal Investigator: Michael Scott Gordon, DPA, Friends Research Institute, Inc., Baltimore, MD).

Effectiveness of Peer Navigation to Link Released HIV+ Jail Inmates to HIV Care (Principal Investigator: William E. Cunningham, MD, University of California at Los Angeles, CA).

HIV, Buprenorphine, and the Criminal Justice System (Principal Investigator: Frederick Lewis Altice, MD, Yale University, New Haven, CT).

Improving Linkage to HIV Care Following Release from Incarceration (Principal Investigators: Josiah Rich, MD, Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI; Liza Solomon, PhD, Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA).

Naltrexone for Opioid Dependent Released HIV+ Criminal Justice Populations (Principal Investigator: Sandra Ann Springer, MD, Yale University, New Haven, CT).

RCT (Randomized Control Trial) of an augmented test, treat, link, & retain model for NC and Texas Prisoners (Principal Investigators: David Wohl, MD, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC; Patrick Flynn PhD, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, TX; Carol Golin, MD, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC; Kevin Knight, PhD, Texas Christian University, Ft. Worth, TX).

Seek, Test, Treat: An Integrated Jail-Prison-Community Model for Illinois (Principal Investigators: Lawrence Ouellet PhD, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL; Michael Puisis DO, Cermak Health Services, Chicago, IL; Jeremy Young MD, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL).

Seek, Test, and Treat Strategies (Principal Investigator: David W. Seal, PhD, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI).

Seek, Test, Treat Strategies for Vietnamese Drug Users: A Random Controlled Trial (Principal Investigator: Vu Minh Quan, MD, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD).

START Together: HIV Testing and Treatment in and after Jail (Principal Investigator: Stanley Sacks, PhD, National Development and Research Institutes, New York City, NY).

CARE Corrections: Technology for Jail HIV/HCV Testing, Linkage, and Care (TLC) (Principal Investigators: Curt Beckwith, M.D., Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI; Irene Kuo, Ph.D., The George Washington University; Ann Kurth, Ph.D., New York University  (funded jointly with NIDA and NIAID))

Finding, Testing and Treating High-risk Probationers and Parolees with HIV (Principal Investigator:  Alexander Kral, Ph.D., Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (Funded by NIMH))

Location(s) of Projects: Baltimore, MD; Chicago, IL; New York, NY; Washington DC, New Haven, CT; Los Angeles, CA; Madison, WI

Evaluation Activities: Peer-reviewed publications to disseminate scientific data and findings; presentations of findings at scientific meetings.

Future Prospects: Future prospects dependent upon receiving highly meritorious investigator-initiated projects and funds available.

Contact:

Susan Weiss, Ph.D.
Phone: (301) 443-6071
Email: susan.weiss@nih.gov

Contents

National Institute of Mental Health

Basic Cognitive and Behavioral Research Grants Related to Antisocial Behavior

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism:Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 10

Award Amount: $2.4 Million per year

Length of Project Period: Varies (1-5 years)

Federal Partners: N/A

Summary:These projects aim to elucidate the basic cognitive and behavioral mechanism underlying sociopathy with the purpose of understanding the biological pathways to antisocial behavior and ultimately developing more effective preventive and treatment interventions. Participants in these studies are offenders, who are or have been incarcerated, their offspring, or individuals at risk for antisocial behavior and therefore incarceration. A number of methodological approaches are utilized, such as psychophysiological assessments (e.g., event-related potentials, startle reflex, electromyography), MRI imaging techniques to evaluate functioning of limbic and paralimbic brain circuitries and other relevant brain regions, and genetic assessments. These studies are funded through a variety of grant mechanisms, including training grants to support the research careers of promising investigators in this area.

Current Grantees (FY09 and FY10): 
Principle Investigator Location Title
Naomi Samimi Sadeh University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
Champaign, IL
Attention-Emotion Interactions in Psychopathy
Kent A. Kiehl The Mind Research Network
Albuquerque, NM
The Cognitive Neuroscience of Female Psychopathy
Christopher John Patrick Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL
Trait Fear and Disinhibition in Impulse Control Disorders
Menahem I Krakowski Nathan S. Klein Institute for Psychological Research
Orangeburg, NY
The Neurophysiology of Violence in Schizophrenia
Joseph P. Newman University of Wisconsin
Madison, Madison, WI
Cognitive-Emotion Interactions in Psychopathy
Joann Wu Shortt Oregon Social Learning Center, Inc.
Eugene, OR
Emotion-Focused Intervention for Mothers and Children Under Stress
Carla Harenski University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM
Multimodal Imaging of Social Emotion and Decision Making in Psychopathy
Edward M. Bernat Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL
Neurobiological Mechanisms of Impulse Control Problems
Elsa Ruth Ermer University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, MN
Social Reasoning in Psychopathy
Eyal Aharoni University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM
Neural Mechanisms of Passive Avoidance Learning in Psychopaths

Evaluation Activities:

Future Prospects: One time funding; may submit applications for funding of additional research.

Contacts:

Dr. Bruce Cuthbert
Director, Division of Adult Translational Research and Treatment Development
Phone: (301) 443-4863
Email: Bruce.Cuthbert@nih.gov

Dr. Molly Oliveri
Director, Division of Developmental Translational Research
Phone: (301) 443-5944
Email: Molly.Oliveri@nih.gov

HIV Prevention and Treatment Grants

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism:Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 9

Award Amount: $2.0 Million per year

Length of Project Period: Varies (1-5 years)

Federal Partners: N/A

Summary:These projects address the prevention and treatment of HIV infection in the context of mental illness in incarcerated populations, their families, and individuals at risk for HIV. The focus is on psychosocial interventions that rapidly impact the health of these people. A variety of grant mechanisms are used to support this research, including also training grants to support research career of investigators interested in this area.

Current Grantees (FY 09 and FY10):
Principle Investigator Location Title
David L. Rosen   University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, NC
Determinants of voluntary HIV testing among inmates
Renee Gindi  Johns Hopkins University 
Baltimore, MD
The impact of incarceration on partner selection norms and HIV
Megan L. Comfort  University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco, CA
HIV Risk among Male Parolees and their Female Partners
David A. Wohl University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, NC
Incarceration and HIV-Infected Inmates
Sheryl L. Catz Group Health Research Institute 
Seattle, WA
Prevention Needs of HIV+ Persons Awaiting Release from Prison
Carol E. Golin University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, NC
Social Networks and HIV-infected Former Prison Inmates
Ronald Lloyd Braithwaite Morehouse School of Medicine 
Atlanta, GA
Mentored Training Program to Increase Diversity in HIV Substance Use and Mental Health Research
Timothy P. Flanigan Miriam Hospital 
Providence, RI
The Brown Initiative in HIV and AIDS Clinical Research for Minority Communities
Caron Zlotnick  Women and Infants Hospital 
Providence, RI
Reducing HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Financially Disadvantaged Victimized Women

Future Prospects: One time funding; may submit applications for funding of additional research.

Contact:

Dr. Dianne Rausch
Deputy Director, NIMH Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS
Phone: (301) 443-7281
Email: Dianne.Rausch@nih.gov

Mental Health Services and Interventions Grants

Type of Activity: Research

Funding Mechanism:Grants

Total Available Funding: N/A

Number of Awards: 17

Award Amount: $5.6 Million per year

Length of Project Period: Varies (2-5 years)

Federal Partners: N/A

Summary:Within the NIMH Division of Services and Interventions Research, seventeen active grants support research related to improving available services and interventions for incarcerated populations and their families. The investigator-initiated studies include infrastructure development grants (two advanced centers), career development awards, pilot studies, and large-scale research projects. Topics include treatment, prevention and services intervention development across juvenile and adult correctional systems, community reentry programs, and the ethics of conducting research within jails and prisons.

Current Grantees:
Principle Investigator Location Title
Naomi E. Goldstein Drexel University 
Philadelphia, PA
Anger Management Treatment for Female Juvenile Offenders
Caron Zlotnick Women and Infants Hospital 
Providence RI
Interventions for Financially Disadvantaged Mothers
Carol Louise Caton Columbia University 
New York, NY
Columbia Center for Homelessness Prevention Studies
Bartley Christopher Frueh University of Hawaii at Hilo 
Hilo, HI
Mentoring/Career Development in PTSD Services Research
Jeffery N. Draine University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, PA
Critical Time Intervention (CTI) for Men with Mental Illness Leaving Prison
J. Steven Lamberti University of Rochester 
Rochester, NY
Forensic Assertive Community Treatment: An Emerging Model of Service Delivery
Karen J. Cusack University of North Carolina 
Chapel Hill, NC
PTSD and Dual Disorders at the Interface of the MH and CJ Systems
Nancy Wolff Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ
Advanced Center for Mental Health Services and Criminal Justice Research
Christine E. Grella University of California – Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA
Mental Health Characteristics and Service Utilization of Substance-Abusing Offend
John Edens Texas A&M University
College Station, TX
Contextual Influences in Prisoner Research
Alison L. Miller University of Michigan 
Ann Arbor, MI
Locally-Tailored Prevention Programming for Children of Incarcerated Mothers
Cathleen E. Willging Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation 
Beltsville, MD
Mental Illness and Community Reentry in a Multi-Ethnic Population of Female Inmates
Cheryl Cepelak Connecticut State Department of Corrections 
Wethersfield, CT
Formalizing a Research Partnership in Corrections
Joseph P. Morrissey University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC Community Reentry of Persons with Severe Mental Illness Released from State Prison
Michael Rowe Yale University 
New Haven, CT
Social Inclusion and Mental Illness: Outcome Measure Development
Stephanie Hartwell University of Massachusetts Boston, 
Boston, MA
Evaluating Effectiveness of a Statewide Public Mental Health Reentry Program

Future Prospects: One time funding; may submit applications for funding of additional research projects.

Contact:

Robert K. Heinssen, , Ph.D., ABPP
Director, Division ofServices and Intervention Research
Phone: (301) 435-0371
Email: rheinsse@mail.nih.gov


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Last updated:  02/25/11