Data on Health and Well-being of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Other Native Americans, Data Catalog

Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS)

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Sponsor: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)/National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NCI) and The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Description: The Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) is a survey of tobacco use that serves as a key source of national and state level data on smoking and other tobacco use in the U.S. household population. The TUS-CPS uses a large, nationally representative sample that contains information on about 240,000 individuals within a given survey period. Although the TUS-CPS has changed slightly between 1992 and 2003, it has generally contained about 40 items concerning cigarette smoking prevalence including smoking history, current and past cigarette consumption; cigarette smoking quit attempts and intentions to quit; medical and dental advice to quit smoking; cigar, pipe, chewing tobacco, and snuff use; workplace smoking policies; smoking rules in the home; attitudes toward smoking in public places; opinions about the degree of youth access to tobacco in the community; and attitudes toward advertising and promotion of tobacco. These data can be used by researchers to monitor progress in the control of tobacco use, conduct tobacco-related research, and evaluate tobacco control programs.
Relevant Policy Issues: Key Health Disparities of Priority Interest.
Data Type(s): Survey
Unit of Analysis: Individual
Identification of AI/AN/NA: The race/ethnicity of the TUS-CPS respondents is taken from the CPS data. In the CPS, participants are asked to respond to the question on race by indicating one or more of six race categories. The six race categories are:
  • White
  • Black or African American
  • American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN)
  • Asian
  • Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NH/PI)
  • Some Other Race (this category is not read or displayed to the respondent)

Responses to the race item are recoded into multiple race categories for analytic purposes:

  • AI/AN Only
  • NH/PI Only
  • White/AI/AN
  • White/NH/PI
  • Black/AI/AN Black/NH/PI
  • AI/AN/Asian
  • Asian/NH/PI
  • White/Black/AI/AN
  • White/AI/AN/Asian
  • White/Asian/NH/PI
  • White/Black/AI/AN/Asian
AI/AN/NA Population in Data Set: For the TUS-CPS, some surveys are completed with proxy respondents when the original sampled respondent is unavailable. Self-respondents are eligible for the entire TUS-CPS questionnaire, whereas proxy respondents are only eligible for certain items. Additionally, responses to the race item are recoded into the multiple race categories. The following categories reflect the unweighted counts for AI/AN/NA respondents, including all surveys completed by the sampled respondents and proxies, and all surveys completed by only the sampled respondent, in the February, June, and November 2003 CPS:

February 2003 (N = 68,954)
AI/AN Only: 786 self & proxy, 582 self only
NH/PI Only: 218 self & proxy, 152 self only
White/AI/AN: 660 self & proxy, 552 self only
White/NH: 52 self & proxy, 34 self only
Black/AI/AN: 71 self & proxy, 59 self only
Black/NH/PI: 3 self & proxy, 2 self only
AI/AN/Asian: 8 self & proxy, 3 self only
Asian/NH/PI: 36 self & proxy, 23 self only
White/Black/AI/AN: 29 self & proxy, 21 self only
White/AI/AN/Asian: 1 self & proxy, 1 self only
White/Asian/NH/PI: 1 self & proxy, 1 self only
White/Black/AI/AN/Asian: 2 self & proxy, 2 self only

June 2003 (N = 89,864)
AI/AN Only: 963 self & proxy, 739 self only
NH/PI Only: 254 self & proxy,164 self only
White/AI/AN: 784 self & proxy, 629 self only
White/NH: 72 self & proxy, 46 self only
Black/AI/AN: 59 self & proxy, 46 self only
Black/NH/PI: 3 self & proxy, 1 self only
AI/AN/Asian: 3 self & proxy, 3 self only
Asian/NH/PI: 72 self & proxy, 36 self only
White/Black/AI/AN: 40 self & proxy, 34 self only
White/AI/AN/Asian: 5 self & proxy, 4 self only
White/Asian/NH/PI: 6 self & proxy, 3 self only
White/Black/AI/AN/Asian: 0 respondents

November 2003 (N = 90,802)
AI/AN Only: 931 self & proxy, 672 self only
NH/PI Only: 222 self & proxy, 142 self only
White/AI/AN: 827 self & proxy, 629 self only
White/NH: 58 self & proxy, 28 self only
Black/AI/AN: 72 self & proxy, 55 self only
Black/NH/PI: 3 self & proxy, 2 self only
AI/AN/Asian: 5 self & proxy, 2 self only
Asian/NH/PI: 90 self & proxy, 54 self only
White/Black/AI/AN: 36 self & proxy, 24 self only
White/AI/AN/Asian: 3 self & proxy, 1 self only
White/Asian/NH/PI: 7 self & proxy, 5 self only
White/Black/AI/AN/Asian: 0 respondents

Geographic Scope: The geographic scope of the study is national. Due to the large sample size for most survey items, analyses can be done at either the national or state levels, and in some cases, for areas smaller than the state level. State sample sizes range from 2,100 for the District of Columbia to 18,700 for California. State data for any year is considered most reliable when using data from all 3 months of data collection.
Date or Frequency: The TUS-CPS was administered as part of the CPS in 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, 2000, 2001-2002, and 2003. For these time periods, the TUS-CPS was administered for 3 months throughout the year.

Over the next 10 years, NCI plans to conduct the TUS-CPS triennially, alternating between a core questionnaire intended for monitoring purposes (similar to the questionnaire used throughout the 1990s) and more specific Special Topics questionnaires that target tobacco-related issues of particular interest to researchers. NCI and CDC will be co-sponsoring the supplements. The next round of core TUS-CPS supplements is being fielded in May 2006, August 2006, and January 2007.

Aggregation: It is recommended that when analyzing the TUS-CPS data, researchers should aggregate the data across the months of the data collection effort for a single year. For example, when using the 2003 data researchers should combine the data collected in the months of February, June, and November.

Although multiple years of TUS-CPS data are available, in 2003 significant changes were made to the race/ethnicity questions in the CPS. In 2003, respondents were able to select more than one race when answering the survey. This change in wording does not impact smoking estimates and trends calculated for the entire nation from the TUS-CPS, but it could potentially impact smoking estimates and trends calculated by race/ethnicity. NCI has developed a method to construct single-race estimates using data from the post-2003 TUS-CPS. The method is useful when trends over time are being examined for single race groups using both pre-2003 and post-2003 data. More information is available in the report Bridging Estimates by Race for the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey – (TUS-CPS) (http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/studies/tus-cps/race_bridging.pdf) which describes the method and gives an initial assessment of the usefulness of the race adjustment.

Data Collection Methodology: The mode of data collection is both telephone and in-person interviewing. NCI estimates that 75 percent of the respondents reply to the survey by telephone and 25 percent of the respondents reply during personal home visits. Additionally, about 20 percent of the completed surveys are completed by a proxy for the sampled respondent. When a proxy is providing the information, only a few measures of use are collected.
Participation: Optional, without incentives
Response Rate: Nonresponse rates are less than 9 percent for the monthly CPS for September 2003 through September 2004.
Sampling Methodology: The TUS-CPS was conducted as a supplemental study with the core CPS. The CPS sample is a multistage stratified sample of approximately 56,000 housing units from 792 sample areas. The CPS samples housing units from lists of addresses obtained from the 1990 Decennial Census of Population and Housing. These lists are updated continuously for new housing built after the 1990 census. The first stage of sampling involves dividing the United States into primary sampling units (PSUs) — most of which comprise a metropolitan area, a large county, or a group of smaller counties. Every PSU falls within the boundary of a state. The PSUs are then grouped into strata.
Analysis: Effective sample size, design effects, and standard errors for estimates are discussed in detail in the following publication: Technical Document CPS03: Current Population Survey, February, June, and November 2003: Tobacco Use Supplement File (http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/studies/tus-cps/surveys/cps03_tech_doc.pdf).
Strengths: There are a large number of AI/AN/NA respondents. There is relevance to a key health policy issue, tobacco use. Multiple years of data are available.
Limitations: While multiple years of data are available, in 2003 significant changes were made to the race/ethnicity questions in the CPS that may affect the ability to look at tobacco use by AI/AN/NA persons over time.
Access Requirements and Use Restrictions: TUS-CPS data are available to the public. The data may be purchased through the Census Bureau’s online catalog. Prices for the data may vary; the cost of purchasing the 2003 data on CD-ROM is $55.00.
Contact Information: Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch
Applied Research Program
Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
National Cancer Institute, EPN 4005
6130 Executive Blvd-MSC 7344
Bethesda, MD 20892-7344
(301) 496-8500

Instructions for ordering the TUS-CPS data files are available on the NCI website at: http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/studies/tus-cps/info.html

Reports of Interest: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tobacco Use Among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority GroupsAfrican Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1998. http://www.cdc.gov/TOBACCO/sgr/sgr_1998/index.htm


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