Data on Health and Well-being of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Other Native Americans, Data Catalog

Census 2000

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Sponsor: U.S. Department of Commerce/U.S. Census Bureau
Description: The Decennial Census occurs every 10 years to count the population and housing units for the entire United States. Its primary purpose is to provide the population counts that determine how seats in the U.S. House of Representatives are apportioned. The U.S. Census Bureau provides three types of data products that may be useful to the interested researcher:
  • Tabular data in the form of summary files,
  • Raw data in the form of Public Use Microdata Sample files (PUMS files), and
  • Census briefs and special reports.

Tabular data: Summary files

The U.S. Census Bureau has released a series of summary files that present Census 2000 data in tabular form. The primary summary files are:

  1. Summary File 1: This file contains 286 detailed tables focusing on age, sex, households, families, and housing units. These tables provide in-depth figures by race and Hispanic origin. Counts are also provided for over 40 American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and for groups within race categories. The race categories also include 12 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander groups.
  2. Summary File 2: This file contains 47 detailed tables focusing on age, sex, households, families, and occupied housing units for the total population. These tables are repeated for 249 detailed population groups, including American Indian, Alaskan Native, 9 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander groups, and 40 American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. For each of these groups, data are provided for that group alone and in combination with one or more other races.
  3. Summary File 3: This file consists of 813 detailed tables of Census 2000 social, economic and housing characteristics compiled from a sample of approximately 19 million housing units (about 1 in 6 households) that received the Census 2000 long-form questionnaire. Fifty-one tables are repeated for 9 major race categories including American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander.
  4. Summary File 4: This file consists of 213 population tables and 110 housing tables. Each table is repeated for 336 population groups: the total population, 132 race groups, 78 American Indian and Alaska Native tribe categories (reflecting 39 individual tribes), and 9 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander groups.
  5. The American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File (AIANSF): These sample data are presented in 213 population tables and 110 housing tables. The tables are repeated for the total population, the total American Indian and Alaska Native population, the total American Indian population, the total Alaska Native population, and for 1,081 additional self-reported American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages without consideration of any designation of federal or state recognition. (Please note that the AIANSF is profiled separately in this data catalog.)

Raw data: 1 percent and 5 percent PUMS files

The PUMS files contain records of households, people, or housing units with identifying information removed and other precautions taken to prevent the violation of confidentiality. PUMS files often show data only for identified geographic areas (such as states) that meet a certain population threshold. The 1 percent PUMS files have state-level Census 2000 data containing individual records of the characteristics for a 1 percent sample of people and housing units. The 5 percent PUMS files contain similar information for a 5 percent sample of people and housing units.

Census briefs and special reports

The Census 2000 Brief series focus on discussing key topics covered by the Census and exploring the geographic distribution of the topics. The Census 2000 Special Report series provides an in-depth analysis of Census 2000 population and housing topics.

Examples of census briefs and special reports of particular interest include:

  • The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000 (C2KBR/01-15)
  • American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes for the United States, Regions, Divisions, and States (PHC-T-18)
  • We the People: American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States (CENSR-28)
  • The Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander Population: 2000 (C2KBR/01-14)
Relevant Policy Issues: Demographic and Economic Indicators, Measurement of Health Status, Income Status, Unemployment Rates, Economic Assistance Program Participation Rates, Educational Attainment, Measures of Well-being for Families/Households, Factors Contributing to Well-being Disparities of Families, Housing Quality, Type of Housing, Housing Ownership, Rental Unit Quality and Cost, and Transportation Availability.
Data Type(s): Census survey
Unit of Analysis: Individual
Identification of AI/AN/NA: As described above, identification of the AI/AN/NA population differs across the many Census 2000 data products. Some data products present the AI/AN/NA population into 2 groups: American Indian/Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander while other data products provide more detailed breakdowns (e.g., distinction between American Indians and Alaska Native, distinction between Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders). Some data products provide detailed breakdowns of these groups presenting data for different tribal affiliations and different Pacific Islander groups. For example, the PUMS files, the AIANSF file, and Summary Files 2 and 4 present tribal affiliation data.

Please note that the tribal affiliation data reflect the written entries by respondents, who identified themselves as AI/AN, and provided an entry for their enrolled or principal tribe or village. Some of the responses (for example, Colorado River and Village of Alakanuk) represent reservations or native villages. The information on tribe or village is based on self-identification without consideration of any designation of federal or state recognition.

AI/AN/NA Population in Data Set: The following counts are reported in Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 Census of Population and Housing. These data are based on 100 percent counts derived from the Census 2000 short form:

Total population: 281,421,906
American Indian and Alaska Native: 2,475,956
Native Hawaiian: 140,652
Guamanian or Chamorro: 58,240
Samoan: 91,029
Other Pacific Islander: 108,914

AI/AN/NA Subpopulations: As described in detail above, some data products provide detailed breakdowns (e.g., distinction between American Indians and Alaska Native, distinction between Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders) and some present data for different tribal affiliations and different Pacific Islander groups.
Geographic Scope: The geographic scope of the study is national. Geographic areas covered by the data in the Census 2000 summary files include:
  • Region (e.g., Midwest, Northeast, South, West)
  • Division (e.g., East North Central, East South Central, Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England)
  • State
  • County (county subdivision, census tract)
  • Place (cities, towns, municipalities)
  • Consolidated cities
  • American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Homeland (including reservations or statistical entities, off-reservation trust lands, Hawaiian homelands, tribal census tracts, tribal subdivisions and remainders)
  • Alaska Native Regional Corporation (e.g., Ahtna Alaska Native Regional Corporation, Aleut Alaska Native Regional Corporation, Arctic Slope Alaska Native Regional Corporation)
  • Metropolitan Statistical Area, Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area
  • New England County Metropolitan Area
  • Urban areas

Geographic areas covered by the Census 2000 PUMS data include:

  • Region (e.g., Midwest, Northeast, South, West)
  • Division (e.g., East North Central, East South Central, Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England)
  • State
  • Public Use Microdata Area Code (PUMA)
  • Super Public Use Microdata Area Code (SuperPUMA)
  • Metropolitan Area (MA): MSA/CMSA for PUMA and SuperPUMA
Date or Frequency: The Census is conducted every 10 years in years ending in zero. The next census is scheduled for 2010. Data are available for each year since 1790. American Indians were first enumerated as a separate group in the 1860 Census. The 1890 census was the first to count American Indians, including some tribes, throughout the country.
Data Collection Methodology: Census 2000 data were collected by mail, telephone, personal interview, and Internet.
Participation: Mandatory
Response Rate: The national final response rate for Census 2000 was 67 percent and represents responses received by mail, telephone or over the Internet through September 7, 2000. The final response rates for 117 American Indian Areas are listed at the following website: http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/response/disp-fro-res.txt.

Sampling Methodology:

Basic demographic and housing questions (for example, race, age, and relationship to householder) were asked for every person in all housing units in the United States. A sample of housing units was also selected to receive more detailed questions in the long form of Census 2000, containing items such as income, occupation, and housing costs. The sampling unit for the long form Census 2000 was the housing unit, including all occupants. There were four different housing unit sampling rates: 1-in-8, 1-in-6, 1-in-4, and 1-in-2 (designed for an overall average of about 1-in-6). The Census Bureau assigned these varying rates based on precensus occupied housing unit estimates of various geographic and statistical entities, such as incorporated places and interim census tracts. For people living in group quarters or those enumerated at long-form-eligible service sites (shelters and soup kitchens), the sampling unit was the person and the sampling rate was 1-in-6.
Analysis: Detailed information regarding the design effects and standard errors for each of the 2000 Census PUMS files and the summary files is available for download from online links on the Census 2000 website.
Authorization: The Census is mandated by the U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2. Participation in the Census is required by law set forth in Sections 141 and 193 of Title 13 of the United States Code.
Strengths: The Census 2000 PUMS files and summary files contain a representative sample of the AI/AN population and selected tribes and villages. The Census 2000 PUMS files and summary files also contain a representative sample of the NH/PI population with some data products providing information on select OPI groups. Data are collected on key policy issues. The U.S. Census Bureau’s website provides extremely comprehensive documentation on the methodology, results, and interpretation of census data.
Limitations: The Census 2000 PUMS files are a very large set of complex files. Considerable expertise in working with data of these types will likely be required. The summary files are less complex but more numerous, thus finding the particular table(s) of interest may be challenging.
Access Requirements and Use Restrictions: Both the PUMS data and the summary files are available to the public at no cost.
Contact Information: A U.S. Census Bureau list of contacts by subject area is available at the following website:  http://www.census.gov/contacts/www/c-census2000.html.

The Census 2000 summary files as well as supporting documentation are available at the U.S. 2000 Census website: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DatasetMainPageServlet?_program=DEC&_submenuId=datasets_1&_lang=en.


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