Data on Health and Well-being of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Other Native Americans, Data Catalog

Census 2000 — The American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File

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Sponsor: U.S. Department of Commerce/U.S. Census Bureau
Description: As mandated by the U.S. Constitution, the Decennial Census is conducted every 10 years to count the population and housing units for the entire United States.

The American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File (AIANSF) is based on Census 2000 data. Data from Census 2000 on the American Indian and Alaska Native population (AI/AN) are derived from a limited number of basic questions asked of the entire American Indian and Alaska Native population and every corresponding housing unit (referred to as the 100-percent questions found on the “short form”), and from additional questions asked of a sample of the population and housing units (referred to as the sample questions, found on the “long form”). The AIANSF provides sample data based on both the 100-percent and the sample questions.

Data in the AIANSF include, for example, age, Hispanic or Latino origin, household relationship, sex, educational attainment, veteran status, income and poverty status, housing tenure (owner-or renter-occupied), physical housing characteristics, and mortgage and rental cost characteristics. These data are available for the total AI/AN population, the total American Indian population, the total Alaska Native population, and for 1,081 self-reported AI/AN tribes or villages without consideration of any designation of federal or state recognition.

Relevant Policy Issues: Demographic and Economic Indicators, Measurement of Health Status, Income Status, Unemployment Rates, Economic Assistance Program Participation Rates, Educational Attainment, Measures of Well-being for Families/Households, Factors Contributing to Well-being Disparities of Families, Housing Quality, Type of Housing, Housing Ownership, Rental Unit Quality and Cost, Transportation Availability.
Data Type(s): Census survey
Unit of Analysis: Individual
Identification of AI/AN/NA: Tribal data provided in the AIANSF reflect the written entries by respondents, who identified themselves as AI/AN, and provided an entry for their enrolled or principal tribe or village. Some of the responses (for example, Colorado River and Village of Alakanuk) represent reservations or native villages. The information on tribe or village is based on self-identification without consideration of any designation of federal or state recognition.

The listing of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and villages is derived from the American Indian Tribal Detailed Classification List for the 1990 census, which was expanded to include individual Alaska Native villages, when provided as a written response to the question on race. The list was updated based on a December 1997 Federal Register Notice, entitled Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Service From the United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, issued by the Office of Management and Budget. The list of 1,081 tribes or villages for which summary tables are available can be found in the technical report for the AIANSF sample file available at: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/aiansf.pdf.

AI/AN/NA Population in Data Set: Unweighted counts of AI/AN/NA in the AIANSF are not available, but given the scope of the Census, the counts are expected to be sufficiently high to support most analyses.
AI/AN/NA Subpopulations: The AIANSF allows identification of members of federally and state-recognized tribes and villages by tribe or village. Subpopulations are identified by specific affiliation.
Geographic Scope: The geographic scope of the study is national. Geographic areas covered by the data in the AIANSF include:
  • Region (e.g., Midwest, Northeast, South, West);
  • Division (e.g., East North Central, East South Central, Middle Atlantic, Mountain, New England);
  • State;
  • American Indian Area/Alaska Native Area/Hawaiian Homeland (e.g., Acoma Pueblo and Off-Reservation Trust Land, and Agua Caliente Reservation);
  • Alaska Native Regional Corporation (e.g., Ahtna Alaska Native Regional Corporation, Aleut Alaska Native Regional Corporation);
  • Metropolitan Statistical Area/Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area;
  • Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area; and
  • New England County Metropolitan Area.
Date or Frequency: The Census is conducted every ten years in years ending in zero. The next census is scheduled for 2010. Data are available for each year since 1790. American Indians were first enumerated as a separate group in the 1860 Census. The 1890 census was the first to count American Indians, including some tribes, throughout the country.
Data Collection Methodology: Census 2000 data were collected by mail, telephone, personal interview, and Internet.
Participation: Mandatory
Response Rate: The national final response rate for Census 2000 was 67 percent and represents responses received by mail, telephone or over the Internet through September 7, 2000. The final response rates for 117 American Indian Areas are listed at the following website: http://www.census.gov/dmd/www/response/disp-fro-res.txt.
Sampling Methodology: Every person and housing unit in the United States was asked basic demographic and housing questions (for example, race, age, and relationship to householder). A sample of these people and housing units was asked more detailed questions about items such as income, occupation, and housing costs. The sampling unit for Census 2000 was the housing unit, including all occupants. There were four different housing unit sampling rates: 1-in-8, 1-in-6, 1-in-4, and 1-in-2 (designed for an overall average of about 1-in-6). The Census Bureau assigned these varying rates based on precensus occupied housing unit estimates of various geographic and statistical entities, such as incorporated places and interim census tracts. For people living in group quarters or those enumerated at long-form-eligible service sites (shelters and soup kitchens), the sampling unit was the person and the sampling rate was 1-in-6.
Analysis: Detailed information regarding the design effects and standard errors for the 2000 Census long form is available from the following publication: Summary File 4- 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Technical Documentation (Chapter 8) and American Indian and Alaska Native Summary File Technical Documentation (Chapter 8).
Authorization: The Census is mandated by the U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2. Participation in the Census is required by law set forth in Sections 141 and 193 of Title 13 of the United States Code.
Strengths: The AIANSF data set contains a representative sample of the AI/AN population and selected tribes and villages. Data are collected on key policy issues. The U.S. Census Bureau’s website provides extremely comprehensive documentation on the methodology, results, and interpretation of census data.
Limitations: The AIANSF is a very large set of complex files. Considerable expertise in working with data of this type will likely be required.
Access Requirements and Use Restrictions: Data are available to the public at no cost.
Contact Information: No specific contact information regarding the AIANSF is given, however a U.S. Census Bureau list of contacts by subject area is available at the following website: http://www.census.gov/contacts/www/c-census2000.html.

The AIANSF data as well as supporting documentation are available at the U.S. 2000 Census website: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DatasetMainPageServlet?_program=DEC&_submenuId=datasets_1&_lang=en.


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