Table of Contents

Preface Page 1
Health Insurance Coverage by Coverage Category Page 2
Health Insurance Coverage - Percent of All Persons Page 3
Health Insurance Coverage - Millions of Persons Page 4
Uninsured Children by Adult's Work Last Year Page 5
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Family Adult's Work History Page 6
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Family Adult's Work History Page 7
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Adult Workers in the Family Page 8
Uninsured Children by Income Class Page 9
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Family Income Class Page 10
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Family Income Class Page 11
Uninsured Children by Race/National Origin Page 12
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Race/National Origin Page 13
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Race/National Origin Page 14
Family Structure Page 15
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Relationship to Family Head Page 16
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Relationship to Family Head Page 17
Presence of Private Insurance in the Family Page 18
Distribution of Uninsured Children by Presence of Private Insurance in the Family Page 19
Insurance Status by Country of Citizenship Page 20
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Country of Citizenship Page 21
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Country of Citizenship Page 22
Insurance Status by Census Region Page 23
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Census Region Page 24
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Census Region Page 25
Insurance Status by Age Class Page 26
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Age Class Page 27
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Age Class Page 28
Insurance Status by Family Adult's Firm Size Page 29
Distribution of Uninsured and Insured Children by Family Adult's Firm Size Page 30
Percentage of Children Uninsured by Family Adult's Firm Size Page 31

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Preface

This chartbook examines demographic and other characteristics of insured and uninsured children in the U.S. It is based on data from the March 1998 Current Population Survey CPS and reflects children’s insurance status during calendar year 1997. For the purposes of this chartbook, the term “children” applies to all U.S. citizens and non-citizen residents under age 18. This definition is consistent with that used by other data sources. This chartbook was prepared by Gene Moyer from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation ASPE, Office of Health Policy. For further information, contact Gene Moyer at 202/690-7861. The author thanks Adele Kirk, Ellie Dehoney, and Laura Brice for earlier versions used as a model for this one.


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Health Insurance Coverage by Coverage Category

Each March the Current Population Survey asks about the health insurance status of each person in the household during the previous year. The March 1998 results are presented in the following two charts, each contrasting uninsured children under age 18 with the U.S. population as a whole. The first chart indicates the percentage of children and the percentage of the U.S. population having a particular source of health insurance; the second indicates the number of people having a particular source of health insurance in millions. Note that persons with more than one insurance type are represented more than once. Results are summarized in the table below:

Type of CoverageChildrenPopulation
Employer-Sponsored Insurance ESI44.9 63%165.1 61%
Other Private Insurance3.1 4%23.4 9%
Medicaid14.7 21%29.0 11%
Medicare0.4 1%35.6 13%
VA, Military, Other2.2 3%8.5 3%
Uninsured10.7 15%43.4 16%

Key findings include:


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Uninsured Children by Adult's Work Last Year

The following three charts show the relationship between uninsured children and adult work history in a child's household. The first two charts show the number and percentage distribution of uninsured children by the family adult's work status the previous year. The "Family Adult" is the adult of the household with the most complete work history during the previous year. This person is not necessarily the parent of the child. About 13% of uninsured children have no parent in the household. The third chart shows coverage status by the number of working adults in the family none, one, or two working adults.


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Uninsured Children by Income Class

The following charts examine the relationship between children's insurance status and family income in the previous year. Family income is shown as a percentage of the federal poverty level FPL. For example, "<100%" means less than 100% of the FPL, while "500%+" means five or more times the FPL. For a family of four in 1997, 100% of FPL is approximately $16,400. The first chart compares the distribution of uninsured children to that of insured children in terms of family income status. The second chart shows the percentage of children in each income group who are uninsured.


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Uninsured Children by Race/National Origin

The following two charts show the relationship between coverage status and race or national origin Hispanics of any race are counted as Hispanics. The first chart compares a given race's representation in the insured and uninsured populations. The second chart shows the percentages of children in each race/national origin who are uninsured.


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Family Structure

The next two charts illuminate differences in family structure among families with uninsured children and those with insured children. Both charts focus on the relationship between children and the head of household; i.e., is the household head the child's parent, another relative, or unrelated to the child? The first chart shows the prevalence of each type of family structure among uninsured children relative to insured children. The second chart shows the percentage of children with a given relationship to the head of household who are uninsured; it demonstrates the dramatic differences among different family structures in rates of uninsurance.


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Presence of Private Insurance in the Family

The following chart shows the distribution of uninsured children by the presence of private insurance in the family. The vast majority of uninsured children 75% live with a parent or spouse who has no private insurance, while 25% have a privately insured parent or spouse.


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Insurance Status by Country of Citizenship

These charts compare the coverage status of children who are U.S. citizens and those who are non-citizen residents.


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Insurance Status by Census Region

As the following two charts show, uninsured children are not evenly distributed among geographic census regions. The first chart compares the relative proportions of uninsured children and insured children in each census region: the first bar shows the proportion of uninsured children living in a given region, while the second bar shows the proportion of insured children living in that same region. The second chart shows the percentages of children within each region who are uninsured.


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Insurance Status by Age Class

The following two charts show the differences in coverage status among children of different age groups. The first chart compares the distribution of uninsured children among different age groups with the distribution of insured children. The second chart shows the percentages of children in each age group who are uninsured.


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Insurance Status by Family Adult's Firm Size

The following two charts show the insurance status of children by size of firm at which the family adult is employed. The first chart compares the distribution of the uninsured children across firm sizes, while the second chart shows the percentage of children who are uninsured among each firm size at which the family adults are employed.


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